Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Excercise Essay Example

Excercise Paper Payments you made to Davits Salon for your hair and make up. 7. Purchases of stocks and bonds by an investor. 0 8. Production and sale of marijuana 9. Construction off new factory bay private enterprise. 0 10. Purchases of imported chocolates by consumers. 0 1 1 . Vegetables produced in the backyard and consumed by the household. 0 12. Sales of second hand cars. EX. 3. Sales by Intel Philippines of semiconductors to the US. 0 14. Sales of a San Miguel Brewery in Hong Kong to the Chinese Mainland. 0 15. Sales by Motile of car batteries to Ionians Philippines II.. Indicate to which the following items belong by writing GAP for Gross Domestic Product, GNP for Gross National Product. Both for an item that is included in both GAP and GNP. BOTH 1 Salary of your teacher in Economics. BOTH 2. Christmas bonus paid to government employees of the Philippines. BOTH 3. Medical insurance premium paid to a Filipino insurance company in Magmata. GAP 4. Consultancy fee of a US scientist working in the Philippines. GNP 5. Salaries of overseas Filipinos in Hong Kong. GNP 6. Profits of San Miguel in Hong Kong. GAP 7. Profits of LOS shareholder of Intel Philippines. GNP 8. Rental income of a Filipino who owns an apartment in the US. BOTH 9. Rental income off Filipino owned condominium in Vito Cruz. GAP 10. Salary of the Japanese president of Honda Philippines. II. Fill in the blanks. 1. A steel company sells some steel to a bicycle company for $150. The bicycle company uses the steel to produce a bicycle, which it sells for $250. Taken together, these two transactions contribute how much to GAP? Mans. $250 2. Suppose there are only two firms in an economy: Rolling Rawhide produces rawhide and sells it to Cheney Chomp, Inc. , which uses the rawhide to produce and sell dog chews. We will write a custom essay sample on Excercise specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Excercise specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Excercise specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer With each 52 of rawhide that it buys from Rolling Rawhide, Chewy Chomp, Inc. Produces a dog chew and sells it for $5. Neither firm had any inventory at the beginning of 2008. During that year, Rolling Rawhide produced enough rawhide for 1000 dog chews. Chewy Chomp, Inc. Bought 75% of that rawhide for $1500 and promised to buy the remaining 25% for $500 in 2009. Chewy Chomp, Inc. Produced 750 dog chews during 2008 and sold each one during that year for $5. What was the economy GAP for 2008? Mans. $4250 IV. The table below contains data for the country of Crete for the year 2010. Total income $5731 Household purchases of durable goods 1108 Household purchases of nondurable goods $702 Household purchases Of Nan-education services $203 Household purchases of education services $302 Household purchases of new housing $816 Purchases of capital equipment $333 Inventory changes $75 Purchases of new structures $267 Depreciation $401 Local government spending on goods and services $236 State government spending on goods and services $419 Federal government spending on goods and services $1182 Transfer payments $707 Foreign purchases of domestically produced goods $217 Domestic purchases Of foreign goods $129 1. What was Crates GAP in 2010? Mans. $5731 2. What was Crates consumption in 2010? Mans. $2315 3. What was Crates investment in 2010? Mans. $ 1491 4. What were Crates government purchases in 2010? Mans. $1837 5. What were Crates net exports in 201 0? Mans. $88 V. The table below contains data for the country of Fatherland, which produces only waffles and pancakes. The base year is 2009. Year Price of Waffles Quantity of Waffles Price of Pancakes Quantity of Pancakes 2008 $2. 00 100 $1. 00 2009 120 150 2010 $3. 00 200 201 1 $4. 00 180 220 1. In 2008, this countrys nominal GAP was $300 2. In 2009, this countrys nominal GAP was $540 3. In 2008, this countys real GAP was $400 4. In 2009, this countrys real GAP was $540 5. In 2010, this countrys real GAP was $700 In 2011, this countrys real GAP was $800 6. 7. 2008, this countrys GAP deflator was $75 8. In 2009, this countrys GAP deflator was 100 In 2010, this countrys GAP deflator was 128. 6 9. 10. In 201 1, this countrys GAP deflator was 172. 5 11. From 2010 to 2011, this countrys output grew 14. 3%. 12. This countrys inflation rate from 2008 to 2009 was 33. 3%. 13. This countrys inflation rate from 2010 to 201 1 was 34. . VI. The table below pertains to Knapsack, an economy in which the typical consumers basket consists of 2 pillows and 15 hotdogs. Price of a Pillow price of a Hotdogs $40 $3 $45 $4 $50 . If the base year is 2009, then the consumer price index was 100 in 2009, 2. 120 in 2010, and 3. 116 in 201 1. 4. If the base year is 2009, then the economy inflation rate in 2010 is 20 percent. 5. The ICP was 96 in 198 2, and the ICP was 208 in 2010. How much money would you have needed in 201 0 in order to buy what you could have bought with $500 in 1982? Mans. $1 ,083. 33 6. The consumer price index was 25 in 2006 and 234 in 2007. The nominal interest rate during this period was 6. 5 percent. What was the real interest rate during this period? Mans. 2. 5 percent 7. If Philippine real GAP grows by 7% while its population grows by 2%, then real per capita income will grow by 5%8. And its per capita income using the rule of 70 will double in 14 years. 9. In one day Madison Laundry washed 4,000 pounds of laundry with 5 workers who each worked 8 hours. What was its productivity? Mans. 1 00 pounds of laundry per hour 10. Stock in Creole Cuisine Restaurants is selling at $25 per share. Creole Cuisine had earnings Of $5 a share and a dividend yield Of 5 percent. The dividend is $1. 25 11. While the PIE ratio 5. VII. Suppose that in a closed economy GAP is equal to 1 1. 000, taxes are equal to 2,500 consumption equals 7,500 and government purchases equal 2,000. 1. Private saving = 1000 2. Public saving = 500 3. National saving = 1500 Assume the following information for an imaginary, closed economy. GAP $120,000; consumption $70,000; private saving $9,000; national saving = $12,000. 4. For this economy, investment amounts to $12,000. 5. The government is running a budget (deficit, surplus) surplus 6. Al to $3000. 7. For this economy, government purchases amount to $38,000. 8. For this economy, taxes amount to $41*000. 1 . Suppose the market for alienable funds is in equilibrium and the government raises the tax on the interest earned by savers. This will cause (demand, supply) supply for alienable funds to (increase, decrease) decrease _ so that the (demand, supply) supply curve shifts to the (left, right) left. In the new equilibrium, the real interest rate is (higher, lower) higher and the equilibrium quantity of alienable funds (increases, decreases) decreases. In he new equilibrium saving is (greater than, equal to, less than) equal to investment. 2. Suppose the market for alienable funds is in equilibrium and the government removes the tax incentives it used to give firms that used their profits to invest.. This will cause (demand, supply) demand for alienable funds to (increase, decrease) decrease so that the (demand, supply) demand curve shifts to the (left, right) left. In the new equilibrium, the real interest rate is (higher, lower) higher and the equilibrium quantity of alienable funds (increases, decreases) decreases.. 3. Suppose the government budget is initially balanced and the market for alienable funds is in equilibrium when the government reduces its spending and incurs a budget surplus. This will cause (demand, supply) supply for alienable funds to (increase, decrease) increase so that the (demand, supply) supply curve shifts to the (left, right) right. In the new equilibrium, the real interest rate is (higher, lower) lower and the equilibrium quantity of alienable funds (increases, decreases) increases. In the new equilibrium private investment is (higher, lower) higher. IX. Use the following table to fill in the blanks. Numbers are in millions. Total Population of working age: 139. 7 Number of Unemployed: Number of employed: 57 92. 3 a. The labor force is 98 million. B. The number of persons not in the labor force is 41. 7 million. C. The labor force participation rate is 70 percent. D. The unemployment rate is 5. 8 percent. X. The figure below shows a diagram of the labor market before and after a minimum wage is imposed. 1. If the market for workers is in equilibrium at $5. 00 per hour as shown in this diagram, the number of workers unemployed is zero. 2. A minimum wage of $8. 00 per hour will increase unemployment by how many workers? 600 workers.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Benefits of Studying Abroad Essays

Benefits of Studying Abroad Essays Benefits of Studying Abroad Essay Benefits of Studying Abroad Essay Jinq Kok Jessie Borgman ENG 1050 July 31, 2011 Benefits of studying abroad Education is a part of learning that has always been a part of our life and it is a never ending process. As education is a building block in our lives, we are willing to invest deeply into our education. Good education will bring us far with what they have to offer for our very own future. Currently in this modern day society, many of our universities and colleges in our own home country have grown tremendously and improved in all sectors and field. Some feel that it is sufficient to get an education in our home country and graduate which leads to finding a job after. Yet many also have the idea of studying abroad as a consideration. Does studying abroad really benefit us? Well, studying abroad does have some advantages and disadvantages. However in an open view of studying abroad, the advantage does trump the disadvantages. Mainly, the disadvantage that comes with studying abroad is personal such as the feeling of being alone and away from home. One may say that studying abroad is much more costly compared to studying locally and with the same education one will get, it is actually unnecessary spending. However, we often forget that education is not expenditures but it is an investment that comes with a long term benefit or return in the long run. The benefits that we gained from studying abroad are priceless and can’t be placed a price on. In addition, the knowledge and experience which we have gained while being abroad would forever be with us and nobody can take it away from us. Among the benefits of studying abroad is the opportunity to be more independent when they are out of their comfort zone at home. Based on a survey and research done by International Education for Students (IES), it was shown that a majority of the students who studied abroad realized that it is a catalyst to increase one’s maturity and self-independence. Many of us cannot deny that we are somehow spoilt when we are in our comfort zone, where we are always spoon-fed by our supporting members of the family. Apart from that, students who studies abroad tend to be more organized in their schedule and are forced to ensure all assignments for school and housework around the house is accomplished. It have also been said that a majority of the students who studied abroad also tend to be more confident. This is because, they are faced with different situations and scenarios in their studying life which they have not faced alone, making them much bolder in decision making on their own. Students would be exposed to different cultures apart from their own; they would develop a wider perspective on the country they are accommodating and the international perspective on the world. Many people from different countries nowadays have different views on different countries due to the misguidance from the mass media through movies and television shows. If we rely solely on education at our home country, we would not be exposed to the cultural diversities that differ from our own. Also, different countries differ in their teaching method, for example, majority of the European based education emphasizes more on the theory of a particular subject, while the American based education focuses on a more practical training and application of theories learnt in class. This would help students to decide which path to choose for their future, as no two students are the same. Some are more practical in their studies, and some are excellent students with the study and understanding on the theory of the subject. With the knowledge learnt abroad, we can always imply and train the people of our home country. The introduction of new technology brought from a different country back to our home country would benefit both us as a student and help improve the economy of our country. Studying abroad can be a great resume builder which would most certainly attracts the interest of the employer when they are reviewing the resume. Apart from that, students who have studied abroad are able to adapt much quicker to new surroundings which helps with the increase of international market businesses (Sullivan). It is with this sense of adaptation by students, that companies are pursuing and in the run to hire future employees with this criteria. In addition to the current limited economy suffered by many companies, they are now venturing and expanding to international market. Therefore, increasing the chances for students who study abroad as they have a wider knowledge on the international market including, language skills that one may have obtained during their stay abroad. An individual who have capability on conversing fluently in a foreign language in a foreign land would impress and place confidence of both the employers and business partners upon that individual. Learning an additional language apart from our mother tongue, would show that the applicant is initiated to learn another language and would prove to be useful in the field. Studying abroad does not bound us to only studying in lecture rooms and classes, as there is always freedom for individual to travel and explore all the historical sites and attractions that the hosting country has to offer. By staying in our home country, we may or may not have the time to travel around the world while we are studying, but being in a foreign land, just by being in our university area and exploring the surroundings would already be an adventure. Being a student in a foreign land supplies us with benefits, such as cheaper travel for us students with a tight budget who wants to see the world and what it has to offer. The world is still filled with all the wonders and mysteries that await our coming of seeking an adventure to explore all this wonderful gifts that have been given to us. Going on a travel during studies is one of the best experiences as we are more outgoing in nature and still excited to explore around. In conclusion, with all the advantages that have been spoken off, one would still hesitate about leaving the comfort of home with various thinking in their mind such as financial and fear of being alone in a far away land. But many of this is small matters that have a solution to it, such as financial studying abroad. Many universities are attracting students to come and study in their universities; therefore they are providing more financial aid and scholarship to students who are serious in pursuing a degree with them and gaining knowledge that they have to offer. However, we must take that one step of faith to make a decision and stand up on our own to pursue something better. Being abroad actually help moulds an individual into a more confident and outspoken person who cannot be built through the aid of classrooms and lecturers but through the lifestyle one chooses. Apart from that, being abroad widens our relationship with people with different backgrounds and cultural beliefs. In addition, by making more friends outside our circle, we enlarge our chances by knowing connections for a job offer in the future. Reference Sullivan, Erin. (2009). â€Å"Considering the Reasons to Study Abroad. † Dummies. com. Retrieved from dummies. com/how-to/content/considering-the-reasons-to-study-abroad. html Dwyer, Mary M. , Peters, Courtney K. (2004). â€Å"The Benefits of Study Abroad. † Transitionsabroad. com. Retrieved from transitionsabroad. com/publications/magazine/0403/benefits_study_abroad. shtml Curran, Sheila J. (2009). â€Å"Career Advantages of Studying Abroad. † Goingglobal. com. Retrieved from http://old. goinglobal. com/hot_topics/general_curran_abroad. asp

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Resume and cover letter Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Resume and cover letter - Personal Statement Example After completing high school, I worked at Nafa’es Company for a period of two years. Here, I gained experience in basic accounting. I also volunteered at Zain Company, a telecommunication company for a period of one year. Here, I gained experience in communication. I believe that my work experience and academic qualification will help me to offer assistance with regard to auditing, payment processing, financial reports, and credit checks, among other responsibilities. I have enclosed my resume, which provides a detailed explanation of my credentials. I kindly request an interview with you at your convenience. If any additional informational is needed, you can contact me at (phone no.) or via email (Email). I will be looking forward to meeting you in an interview. I am seeking the position of an accounting intern that will enable me to put my accounting and finance knowledge and experience to practice while contributing to the achievement of the company’s

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Kodak and Fujifilm Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Kodak and Fujifilm - Essay Example The company has been slow in responding to the digital revolution. George Eastman started commercial production of dry plates as early as 1888 in New York (Schaede, 2008). He formed Eastman Company in 1888 and later transformed it to Eastman Kodak in 1892. The first brownie Camera was introduced in 1900 while the first motion picture film was launched in 1929. The first digital camera was introduced in 1975 with the capability of capturing black and white images with a resolution of 10,000 pixels. Eastman Kodak ventured in the video market in 1984 with the Kodavision series 2000 8mm video system. In 2003, Kodak Easyshare printer dock 6000 was launched to produce borderless 4 by 6 inch prints. In 2011, the company began shopping its 1,000 digital-imaging patents and experienced a downgrading of its debt ratings. In January 2012, the company announced plans to realign its business operations in order to cut costs but later in the month it filled bankruptcy protection in order to boost cash position and stay in operations. The profits and sales of Eastman Kodak have been eroding since 1990s due to foreign competition from Fujifilm. Eastman Kodak core business is divided in to three business segments that include digital and filming systems for consumers, professionals and entertainment industry (Schaede, 2008). The second business segment is the commercial imaging group that consists of aerial, graphic, micrographic, inkjet printers, scanners and digital printing equipments that target industrial, banking and insurance markets. The third business segment is health imaging that caters for medical films, processing equipments and chemicals (Schaede, 2008). On the other hand, Fuji Photo Film Ltd was founded in 1934 and is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Fuji Film prides itself of continuous technological innovations since the company spends almost 7 percent of its sales towards research and development activities. Fuji Photo Film was established as part of the governm ent plans of establishing a local photographic film industry. Ashigara factory began operations immediately by producing photographic print papers, dry plates and photosensitive materials. The company entered the US market in 1965 and diversified to Europe the following year (Schaede, 2008). In 1983, Fuji acquired 51 percent of the shareholding of Chiyoda medical company in order to boost its medical photography and imaging business segment. In the 1990s, the company made several acquisitions and entered markets such as Hong-Kong, China and German. In 2003, an Enovation Graphic system was established in the US and acquired Arch Chemical, Inc currently known as the Fujifilm Electronics materials Co, Ltd. The company acquired Avecia inkjet limited and Problem solving concepts, Inc in order to boost imaging information systems business segment in the US. The company entered in Dubai in 2010 and also acquired endoscopy products in Turkey to boost its sales promotions. FujiFilm launched light production color system for on-demand printing in 2012. Fujifilm core business is divided in to three business segments that include imaging solutions, information solutions and documents solutions. Imaging solutions segment consists of electronic imaging, color films, color chemicals and papers, labs and photofinishing equipments. Information solutions business segments consist of medical systems, graphic systems, industrial products, optical devices and recording media (Schaede, 2008). The document

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Jumping Rope in Physical Education Settings Essay Example for Free

Jumping Rope in Physical Education Settings Essay This article by Susan B. Nye was written to educate all students that jumping rope is an activity that can be fun and enjoyable. The overall layout of this article I thought was well constructed. The article begins with background information about jumping rope and why it is important to incorporate jumping rope in the classroom as well as why it is considered a lifelong physical activity. Then the article shifts toward the basics of jump roping which is laid out in an easy to follow guideline. Moving on, the article shifts to the safety procedure that comes with jumping rope. Then lastly, the article shifts to more advanced jump roping activities that can be played that are fun for all students once each student has shown that they understand the basics and the Ready-Set-Jump protocol. The safety procedure that this article focuses on is described by Susan B. Nye in a three step process called the â€Å"Ready-Set-Jump† protocol. The author did a great job when writing this article so that either a public or private schools can understand and incorporate jumping rope into the classroom. The article states that jumping rope is an inexpensive way to engage students in a lifelong physical activity. After reading that I was shocked to believe that jumping rope was considered a lifelong physical activity. I also did not know that according to this article that depending on the students jumping pace, an individual can burn an estimated 11 calories per minute. Along with burning calories I did not realize that there are different various types of rope: beaded, speed long handled ropes that were mentioned in this article. The beaded jump ropes are designed for beginning learners because they have a slower rotation rate. They are also better jump ropes for rougher surfaces. Speed jump ropes are inexpensive which can be fit into even the smallest school budgets. The benefits of the speed ropes are that they turn easier and can be easily adjusted to fit all students. The long handled jump ropes are great for beginning to perform tricks such as the criss-cross. The one aspect of the article I really did enjoy reading was the explanation of the safety procedures that are associated with jumping rope. The article describes the safety procedure for jumping rope as a â€Å"ready-set-jump† protocol. The goal of the â€Å"Ready-Set-Jump† is for students to utilize this protocol outside of class to remain safe and have fun. The ready stage in the safety protocol reminds students to fit their own jump rope and to correctly hold the jump rope. Holding the handle by your thumb and index finger is the proper way to hold the jump rope. Correctly measuring the jump rope is another key component to the safety protocol for jumping rope. I did not know this but there are three different measurements: standard, chest and lower rib cage when measuring for the correct jump rope length. The standard measurement is for the beginning learners; the shorter the rope the faster the revolutions per second. The second stage in the safety protocol is called â€Å"set†. In this stage students reinforce self space. The proper self space when jumping rope is two feet above your head, three feet on each side of your body and five feet in front and behind of the individual. The last stage of the safety protocol is simple it allows the students to know that it is time to jump rope and have fun. Jumping rope is considered being a high impact activity that requires coordination, balance and endurance. Jumping rope may be hard for younger students simply because it requires two skills: rope turning and jumping. The most effective way to implement jumping rope in your classroom is to teach it as a station or an instant activity but for short amounts of time no more than three to five minutes long. In conclusion, I totally agree with this article that if implemented properly in the classroom, jumping rope can be a high impact and inexpensive way to engage students in a lifelong physical activity. The author of this article did a great job with the overall organization of the information because it was in an easy to follow format for anyone to read. I can honestly say after reading this article I have a greater knowledge of how effective incorporating jumping rope can be in the classroom for all students.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Basic Firewall Operation Computer Science Essay

Basic Firewall Operation Computer Science Essay A firewall is a piece of software or hardware that filters all network  traffic between the computer, local network or commercial network and  Internet.  Firewall is a component of a computer system or network  designed to block unauthorized access while  allowed   communication.  It is a device or group of devices  configured  deny, encrypt, decrypt, or proxy all (inside and outside) traffic  team  between different security domains based on a set   Firewalls can be implemented in hardware or  software,  or  a combination of both.  A firewall can be few rules  determine what traffic is  being permitted inside or outside your home network.  Depending on the  type  firewall in place, access to certain  IP addresses or domain  names, or you can block certain types of traffic by blocking  of  TCP / IP  the ports they use.  There are basically four mechanisms used by servers  security limit  traffic.  A device or program can use more than one of these in  relationship  together for more depth protection.  The four mechanisms  of  packet filtering, circuit-level gateway, the  proxy-server and application  Gateway. However, Firewall has some drawbacks.  Initial equipment cost is the main factor that determines the  Better communication technology network security  required.  The firewall cannot protect against attacks that bypass  firewall.  To  For example, dial-in and dial-out access.  The firewall does not protect against internal threats.  The firewall cannot protect against transmission of the virus  infection  programs or files.  It would be impractical and perhaps  impossible to scan  all incoming files, emails and messages for  virus   Time to time, the use of cheaper Internet and  links  much faster.  This leaves many people always want to  use long time. It is  increasing the exposure of computers to various  threats   Internet.  When using an anti-virus software protects  computers  viruses, not other forms of Internet intruders.  A server  Safety  bodyguard keep between your computer and the Internet,  decide what doors to open, and that can come Overview of Firewall -II A firewall examines all traffic sent between two networks to see if it meets certain criteria. If so, is routed between the networks, otherwise it stops. A firewall filters incoming and outgoing traffic. You can also manage public access to private networked resources such as host applications. It can be used to record all attempts to enter the private network and trigger alarms when hostile or unauthorized entry attempt. Firewalls can filter packets based on their source and destination addresses and port numbers. This is known as address filtering. Firewalls can also filter specific types of network traffic. This is also known as protocol filtering because the decision to forward or reject traffic depends on the protocol used, such as HTTP, FTP or Telnet. Firewalls can also filter traffic by packet attribute or state. A firewall cannot prevent individual users with modems to dial in or outside the network without going through the firewall at all. Employee misconduct or negligence cannot be controlled by firewalls. Policies regarding use and misuse of passwords and user accounts must be strictly enforced. These are management issues that must be asked in the planning of any security policy, but cannot be solved with firewalls alone. [5] 2.1Advantages of Firewalls Firewalls have a number of advantages. They can stop incoming requests for services, fundamentally insecure, as may be prohibited or rlogin RPC services such as NFS. They can control access to other services such as bars appellants from certain IP addresses, use the filtering service (incoming and outgoing), for example, to stop hiding information about FTP, in writing, for example, allowing access only to certain directories or systems Are more profitable than ensuring every guest on the corporate network, as it is often only one or a few systems firewall concentrate. They are safer for every guest, because of the complexity of the software on the machine which makes it easier for security holes appear. 2.2 Disadvantages of Firewalls Firewalls are not the alpha and omega of network security. They have some disadvantages, such as: It is a focal point for attack, and if a hacker penetrates the firewall that can have unlimited access to the corporate network. You can prevent legitimate users access to services of value, for example, business users will not be released to the web or when working outside the home to a business user can not access the organization track network. No protection against attacks from the back door, in May and encourage users enter and exit through the door, especially if the restrictions are too severe service. Examples of entry points to the back door of the network business are: modems, and import and export unit. The security policy should cover such aspects as well. They can be a bottleneck for the flow, since all connections must pass through the firewall system. Firewall systems themselves can not protect the network against smuggling of import or export of material to prohibit such game programs firewalls as attachments to email messages. Smuggling could also be an important source of infection if users download software from external newsletters recent Melissa virus and the Love Bug have been smuggled into the e-mails to unknown recipients. This is an area that security policy must be addressed. There are software programs that can help in this instance MIMEsweeper runs on the firewall and monitoring of e-mail attachments before you let them pass. It will remove potentially dangerous attachments or prevent the mail from all over. The main disadvantage of a firewall is that it protects against the aggressor inside. Like most computer crimes are perpetrated by corporate internal users, a firewall offers little protection against this threat. For example, an employee may not be able to email sensitive data on the site, but may be able to copy on a floppy and after it. Therefore, organizations need to balance the amount of time and money they spend on the firewall with one on other aspects of information security. [3] Firewall function III There are two methods of denial of access used by firewalls. A firewall may allow all traffic through unless it meets certain criteria, or you can deny all traffic unless it meets certain criteria (see Figure 3.1). The type of criteria used to determine whether to allow traffic through varies from one type of firewall to another. Firewalls may be concerned about the type of traffic, or source or destination addresses and ports. They can also use complex rule bases that analyze the application data to determine whether traffic should be allowed to pass. How a firewall determines what traffic to pass depends on the network layer it operates.[5] Figure 3.1: Basic Firewall Operation Firewall Types IV A real firewall is hardware and software that intercepts data between the Internet and your computer. All data traffic must pass through it, and the firewall allows the data is allowed through the corporate network. Firewalls are typically implemented using one of four major architectures: â‚ ¬Ã‚  Packet Filters â‚ ¬Ã‚  Application Gateways â‚ ¬Ã‚  Circuit -level Gateways â‚ ¬Ã‚  State -full inspection 3.1 Packet Filters The first line of defence in protecting firewalls and most fundamental is the packet filtering firewall. Packet filters operate at the network layer to examine incoming and outgoing packets and applying a fixed set of rules for determining whether packets are allowed to pass. The firewall packet filtering is generally very fast because it does not take into account some of these data in the packet. Just analyze the header of IP packet, IP addresses, source and destination, and combinations of ports and then applies filtering rules. For example, it is easy to filter all packets destined to port 80, which could be wearing a Web server. The administrator can decide which port 80 is off limits except to certain IP subnets, and a packet filter would suffice. Packet filtering is fast, flexible, transparent (no changes required on the client) and inexpensive. Most routers offer capacities of packet filtering and pure firewall packet filter does not require powerful hardware. This type of filter is commonly used in businesses small and medium enterprises that need to control users can or can not go. IP addresses can be distorted by this type of filter media itself is not sufficient to stop an intruder from accessing your network. However, a packet filter is an important component of a server solution for complete security. [4 vara] Fig 4.1 packet filtering[4] 3.2 Circuit-level Gateways A step above the standard packet filtering firewall, but still considered part of the same architecture, are the gates of the circuit, also known as Stateful Packet Inspection. In the circuit level firewall, all connections are monitored and connections that are deemed valid are allowed to cross the firewall. This usually means that the client behind the firewall can initiate any type of session, but customers outside the firewall can not see or connect to a machine protected by the firewall. State inspections usually occur in the network layer, which makes it fast and preventing suspect packets travel up the protocol stack. Unlike static packet filtering, however, an inspection of State takes decisions on the basis of all data in the packet (which corresponds to all levels of the OSI model). Using this information, the firewall builds dynamic state tables. Use these tables to keep track of connections through the firewall instead of allowing all packets meeting the requirements of all rules to adopt, allows only the packets that are part of a valid connection, prepared social. The firewall packet filtering is popular because they tend to be cheaper, faster and relatively easy to configure and maintain. [4vara] Fig. 7.2: Circuit Proxy 3.3 Application Proxies Working in the implementation of the OSI model, proxy firewall forces all client applications on workstations protected by the firewall to use the firewall as a gateway. The firewall allows each package for each different protocol. There are some drawbacks to using this type of firewall. Each client program must be configured to use a proxy, and not everyone can. In addition, the firewall must have a representative in the same for each type of protocol that can be used. This May, a delay in the implementation of new protocols, if the firewall does not. The penalty paid for this extra level of security is the performance and flexibility. Firewall proxy server processor and large memory to support many simultaneous users, and the introduction of new Internet applications and protocols can often involve long delays, while developing new powers to support them. True proxies are probably the safest, but to impose a surcharge on the network load. Dynamic packet filtering is definitely faster, but the highest end firewall these days are hybrids, incorporating elements of all architectures. [4vara] Fig. 7.3: Application Proxy 3.4 Stateful Inspection The optimal firewall is one that provides the best security with the fastest performance. A technique called Stateful Multi-Layer Inspection (SMLI) was invented to make security tighter while making it easier and less expensive to use, without slowing down performance. SMLI is the foundation of a new generation of firewall products that can be applied across different kinds of protocol boundaries, with an abundance of easy-to-use features and advanced functions. SMLI is similar to an application proxy in the sense that all levels of the OSI model are examined.Instead of using a proxy, which reads and processes each packet through some data manipulation logic, SMLI use traffic-screening algorithms optimized for high-throughput data parsing. With SMLI, each packet is examined and compared against known state (i.e., bit patterns) of friendly packets one of the advantages to SMLI is that the firewall closes all TCP ports and then dynamically opens ports when connections require them. This feature allows management of services that use port numbers greater than 1,023, such as PPTP, which can require added configuration changes in other types of firewalls. Statefu inspection firewalls also provide features such as TCP sequence-number randomization and UDP filtering. [5vara] Fig. 7.4 : Stateful Inspection firewalls inspect in each type Packet Filtering Data link header Internet header Transport header Application header Data Circuit Filtering Data link header Internet header Transport header Application header Data + Connection state Application Gateway Data link header Internet header Transport header Application header Data + Connection state application state Hardware Firewalls and Software Firewalls V 5.1 Hardware Firewalls Hardware firewall can be purchased as a standalone product, but more recently hardware firewalls are typically found in broadband routers, and should be regarded as an important part of your system and network settings, especially for those who have broadband. Hardware firewalls can be effective with little or no configuration, and can protect every machine on a LAN. Most hardware firewalls will have a minimum of four network ports to connect other computers, but for large networks, firewall solutions for enterprise networks are available. A hardware firewall uses packet filtering to examine the packet header to determine their origin and destination. This information is compared to a set of predefined rules or created by the user determine if the packet is sent or deleted.[2] As with any electronic equipment, a user with general computer skills can connect a firewall, adjust a few settings that work. To ensure that the firewall is configured for optimal security and protection, however, consumers certainly have to learn the features of your hardware firewall, to enable them, and how to test your firewall to secure your done a good job of protecting your network. Firewalls are not all equal, and it is important to read the manual and the documentation that came with the product. In addition the manufacturers site will generally have a database or FAQ to get you started. If the terminology is a bit too tech-oriented, you can use my library technical terms to help you get a better understanding of certain terms of technology and equipment is where you configure your hardware firewall. To test the security of your hardware firewall, you can buy third party software or a review of research on the Internet for a free online service that is based on testing of firewalls. Test firewall is an important element of maintenance to ensure that your system is configured for optimal protection provided.[2vara] Figure-1 Hardware Firewall Hardware firewall providing protection to a Local Network [3vara] 2.2 Software Firewalls For users of the detached house, choosing the most popular firewall is firewall software. Firewall software installed on your computer (like any software) and can be customized, allowing some control over its function and protection features. A firewall software to protect your computer from outside attempts to control or access your computer, and your choice of firewall software, you can provide protection against Trojans, the most common or e-mail to. Many software firewalls that the user defined controls for setting up files and share printers and block harmful applications from running on your system. In addition, the firewall software may also include access control, Web filtering and more. The disadvantage of software firewall is that it protects only the computer that are installed, no network, so that each team must have a software firewall is installed. [2] As hardware firewalls are a large number of firewalls to choose from. To begin, we recommend you read the comments of firewall software and search the product website to get some initial information. Because your firewall is always running on your computer, you must take note of system resources will be required to execute and possible incompatibilities with your operating system. A good software firewall will run in the background on your system and use only a small amount of system resources. It is important to monitor firewall software, once installed and to download updates provided by the developer. The differences between software and hardware firewall are enormous and the best protection for your computer and the network is to use both because each offers different, but very necessary for safety and performance. Update your firewall and your operating system is essential to maintain optimal protection because it is proof of your firewall to ensure it is connected and working properly. [2 vara] Figure-2 Computer with Firewall Software Computer running firewall software to provide protection [3 vara] Table 5.1: firewall comparison Advantages Disadvantages Hardware Firewall Operating system independent Not vulnerable to malicious attacks Better performance Focuses on only firewall-related duties Can be single point of failure Higher administrative overhead Higher cost to implement and maintain Software Firewall Less expensive to implement and maintain Lower administrative overhead Dependent upon host operating system Requires additional host hardware, Vulnerable to malicious attacks, Lower performance [6]

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Digital Fortress Chapter 63-65

Chapter 63 Becker's newly purchased Vespa motorcycle struggled up the entry road to Aeropuerto de Sevilla. His knuckles had been white the whole way. His watch read just after 2:00 a.m. local time. As he approached the main terminal, he rode up on the sidewalk and jumped off the bike while it was still moving. It clattered to the pavement and sputtered to a stop. Becker dashed on rubbery legs through the revolving door. Never again, he swore to himself. The terminal was sterile and starkly lit. Except for a janitor buffing the floor, the place was deserted. Across the concourse, a ticket agent was closing down the Iberia Airlines counter. Becker took it as a bad sign. He ran over. â€Å"El vuelo a los Estados Unidos?† The attractive Andalusian woman behind the counter looked up and smiled apologetically. â€Å"Acaba de salir. You just missed it.† Her words hung in the air for a long moment. I missed it. Becker's shoulders slumped. â€Å"Was there standby room on the flight?† â€Å"Plenty,† the woman smiled. â€Å"Almost empty. But tomorrow's eight a.m. also has-â€Å" â€Å"I need to know if a friend of mine made that flight. She was flying standby.† The woman frowned. â€Å"I'm sorry, sir. There were several standby passengers tonight, but our privacy clause states-â€Å" â€Å"It's very important,† Becker urged. â€Å"I just need to know if she made the flight. That's all.† The woman gave a sympathetic nod. â€Å"Lovers' quarrel?† Becker thought a moment. Then he gave her a sheepish grin. â€Å"It's that obvious?† She gave him a wink. â€Å"What's her name?† â€Å"Megan,† he replied sadly. The agent smiled. â€Å"Does your lady friend have a last name?† Becker exhaled slowly. Yes, but I don't know it!† Actually, it's kind of a complicated situation. You said the plane was almost empty. Maybe you could-â€Å" â€Å"Without a last name I really can't†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Actually,† Becker interrupted, having another idea. â€Å"Have you been on all night?† The woman nodded. â€Å"Seven to seven.† â€Å"Then maybe you saw her. She's a young girl. Maybe fifteen or sixteen? Her hair was-† Before the words left his mouth, Becker realized his mistake. The agent's eyes narrowed. â€Å"Your lover is fifteen years old?† â€Å"No!† Becker gasped. â€Å"I mean†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Shit. â€Å"If you could just help me, it's very important.† â€Å"I'm sorry,† the woman said coldly. â€Å"It's not the way it sounds. If you could just-â€Å" â€Å"Good night, sir.† The woman yanked the metal grate down over the counter and disappeared into a back room. Becker groaned and stared skyward. Smooth, David. Very smooth. He scanned the open concourse. Nothing. She must have sold the ring and made the flight. He headed for the custodian. â€Å"Has visto a una nina?† he called over the sound of the tile buffer. â€Å"Have you seen a girl?† The old man reached down and killed the machine. â€Å"Eh?† â€Å"Una nina?† Becker repeated. â€Å"Pelo rojo, azul, y blanco. Red white and blue hair.† The custodian laughed. â€Å"Que fea. Sounds ugly.† He shook his head and went back to work. David Becker stood in the middle of the deserted airport concourse and wondered what to do next. The evening had been a comedy of errors. Strathmore's words pounded in his head: Don't call until you have the ring. A profound exhaustion settled over him. If Megan sold the ring and made the flight, there was no telling who had the ring now. Becker closed his eyes and tried to focus. What's my next move? He decided to consider it in a moment. First, he needed to make a long-overdue trip to a rest room. Chapter 64 Susan stood alone in the dimly lit silence of Node 3. The task at hand was simple: Access Hale's terminal, locate his key, and then delete all of his communication with Tankado. There could be no hint of Digital Fortress anywhere. Susan's initial fears of saving the key and unlocking Digital Fortress were nagging at her again. She felt uneasy tempting fate; they'd been lucky so far. North Dakota had miraculously appeared right under their noses and been trapped. The only remaining question was David; he had to find the other pass-key. Susan hoped he was making progress. As she made her way deeper into Node 3, Susan tried to clear her mind. It was odd that she felt uneasy in such a familiar space. Everything in Node 3 seemed foreign in the dark. But there was something else. Susan felt a momentary hesitation and glanced back at the inoperable doors. There was no escape. Twenty minutes, she thought. As she turned toward Hale's terminal, she noticed a strange, musky odor-it was definitely not a Node 3 smell. She wondered if maybe the deionizer was malfunctioning. The smell was vaguely familiar, and with it came an unsettling chill. She pictured Hale locked below in his enormous steaming cell. Did he set something on fire? She looked up at the vents and sniffed. But the odor seemed to be coming from nearby. Susan glanced toward the latticed doors of the kitchenette. And in an instant she recognized the smell. It was cologne†¦ and sweat. She recoiled instinctively, not prepared for what she saw. From behind the lattice slats of the kitchenette, two eyes stared out at her. It only took an instant for the horrifying truth to hit her. Greg Hale was not locked on the sublevels-he was in Node 3! He'd slipped upstairs before Strathmore closed the trapdoor. He'd been strong enough to open the doors all by himself. Susan had once heard that raw terror was paralyzing-she now knew that was a myth. In the same instant her brain grasped what was happening, she was in motion-stumbling backward through the dark with a single thought in mind: escape. The crash behind her was instantaneous. Hale had been sitting silently on the stove and extended his legs like two battering rams. The doors exploded off their hinges. Hale launched himself into the room and thundered after her with powerful strides. Susan knocked over a lamp behind her, attempting to trip Hale as he moved toward her. She sensed him vault it effortlessly. Hale was gaining quickly. When his right arm circled her waist from behind, it felt like she'd hit a steel bar. She gasped in pain as the wind went out of her. His biceps flexed against her rib cage. Susan resisted and began twisting wildly. Somehow her elbow struck cartilage. Hale released his grip, his hands clutching his nose. He fell to his knees, hands cupped over his face. â€Å"Son of a-† He screamed in pain. Susan dashed onto the door's pressure plates saying a fruitless prayer that Strathmore would in that instant restore power and the doors would spring open. Instead, she found herself pounding against the glass. Hale lumbered toward her, his nose covered with blood. In an instant, his hands were around her again-one of them clamped firmly on her left breast and the other on her midsection. He yanked her away from the door. She screamed, her hand outstretched in futile attempt to stop him. He pulled her backward, his belt buckle digging into her spine. Susan couldn't believe his strength. He dragged her back across the carpet, and her shoes came off. In one fluid motion, Hale lifted her and dumped her on the floor next to his terminal. Susan was suddenly on her back, her skirt bunched high on her hips. The top button of her blouse had released, and her chest was heaving in the bluish light. She stared up in terror as Hale straddled her, pinning her down. She couldn't decipher the look in his eyes. It looked like fear. Or was it anger? His eyes bore into her body. She felt a new wave of panic. Hale sat firmly on her midsection, staring down at her with an icy glare. Everything Susan had ever learned about self-defense was suddenly racing through her mind. She tried to fight, but her body did not respond. She was numb. She closed her eyes. Oh, please, God. No! Chapter 65 Brinkerhoff paced Midge's office. â€Å"Nobody bypasses Gauntlet. It's impossible!† â€Å"Wrong,† she fired back. â€Å"I just talked to Jabba. He said he installed a bypass switch last year.† The PA looked doubtful. â€Å"I never heard that.† â€Å"Nobody did. It was hush-hush.† â€Å"Midge,† Brinkerhoff argued, â€Å"Jabba's compulsive about security! He would never put in a switch to bypass-â€Å" â€Å"Strathmore made him do it,† she interrupted. Brinkerhoff could almost hear her mind clicking. â€Å"Remember last year,† she asked, â€Å"when Strathmore was working on that anti-Semitic terrorist ring in California?† Brinkerhoff nodded. It had been one of Strathmore's major coups last year. Using TRANSLTR to decrypt an intercepted code, he had uncovered a plot to bomb a Hebrew school in Los Angeles. He decrypted the terrorist's message only twelve minutes before the bomb went off, and using some fast phone work, he saved three hundred schoolchildren. â€Å"Get this,† Midge said, lowering her voice unnecessarily. â€Å"Jabba said Strathmore intercepted that terrorist code six hours before that bomb went off.† Brinkerhoff's jaw dropped. â€Å"But†¦ then why did he wait-â€Å" â€Å"Because he couldn't get TRANSLTR to decrypt the file. He tried, but Gauntlet kept rejecting it. It was encrypted with some new public key algorithm that the filters hadn't seen yet. It took Jabba almost six hours to adjust them.† Brinkerhoff looked stunned. â€Å"Strathmore was furious. He made Jabba install a bypass switch in Gauntlet in case it ever happened again.† â€Å"Jesus.† Brinkerhoff whistled. â€Å"I had no idea.† Then his eyes narrowed. â€Å"So what's your point?† â€Å"I think Strathmore used the switch today†¦ to process a file that Gauntlet rejected.† â€Å"So? That's what the switch is for, right?† Midge shook her head. â€Å"Not if the file in question is a virus.† Brinkerhoff jumped. â€Å"A virus? Who said anything about a virus!† â€Å"It's the only explanation,† she said. â€Å"Jabba said a virus is the only thing that could keep TRANSLTR running this long, so-â€Å" â€Å"Wait a minute!† Brinkerhoff flashed her the time-out sign. â€Å"Strathmore said everything's fine!† â€Å"He's lying.† Brinkerhoff was lost. â€Å"You're saying Strathmore intentionally let a virus into TRANSLTR?† â€Å"No,† she snapped. â€Å"I don't think he knew it was a virus. I think he was tricked.† Brinkerhoff was speechless. Midge Milken was definitely losing it. â€Å"It explains a lot,† she insisted. â€Å"It explains what he's been doing in there all night.† â€Å"Planting viruses in his own computer?† â€Å"No,† she said, annoyed. â€Å"Trying to cover up his mistake! And now he can't abort TRANSLTR and get aux power back because the virus has the processors locked down!† Brinkerhoff rolled his eyes. Midge had gone nuts in the past, but never like this. He tried to calm her. â€Å"Jabba doesn't seem to be too worried.† â€Å"Jabba's a fool,† she hissed. Brinkerhoff looked surprised. Nobody had ever called Jabba a fool-a pig maybe, but never a fool. â€Å"You're trusting feminine intuition over Jabba's advanced degrees in anti-invasive programming?† She eyed him harshly. Brinkerhoff held up his hands in surrender. â€Å"Never mind. I take it back.† He didn't need to be reminded of Midge's uncanny ability to sense disaster. â€Å"Midge,† he begged. â€Å"I know you hate Strathmore, but-â€Å" â€Å"This has nothing to do with Strathmore!† Midge was in overdrive. â€Å"The first thing we need to do is confirm Strathmore bypassed Gauntlet. Then we call the director.† â€Å"Great.† Brinkerhoff moaned. â€Å"I'll call Strathmore and ask him to send us a signed statement.† â€Å"No,† she replied, ignoring his sarcasm. â€Å"Strathmore's lied to us once already today.† She glanced up, her eyes probing his. â€Å"Do you have keys to Fontaine's office? â€Å"Of course. I'm his PA.† â€Å"I need them.† Brinkerhoff stared in disbelief. â€Å"Midge, there's no way in hell I'm letting you into Fontaine's office.† â€Å"You have to!† she demanded. Midge turned and started typing on Big Brother's keyboard. â€Å"I'm requesting a TRANSLTR queue list. If Strathmore manually bypassed Gauntlet, it'll show up on the printout.† â€Å"What does that have to do with Fontaine's office?† She spun and glared at him. â€Å"The queue list only prints to Fontaine's printer. You know that!† â€Å"That's because it's classified, Midge!† â€Å"This is an emergency. I need to see that list.† Brinkerhoff put his hands on her shoulders. â€Å"Midge, please settle down. You know I can't-â€Å" She huffed loudly and spun back to her keyboard. â€Å"I'm printing a queue list. I'm going to walk in, pick it up, and walk out. Now give me the key.† â€Å"Midge†¦Ã¢â‚¬  She finished typing and spun back to him. â€Å"Chad, the report prints in thirty seconds. Here's the deal. You give me the key. If Strathmore bypassed, we call security. If I'm wrong, I leave, and you can go smear marmalade all over Carmen Huerta.† She gave him a malicious glare and held out her hands for the keys. â€Å"I'm waiting.† Brinkerhoff groaned, regretting that he had called her back to check the Crypto report. He eyed her outstretched hand. â€Å"You're talking about classified information inside the director's private quarters. Do you have any idea what would happen if we got caught?† â€Å"The director is in South America.† â€Å"I'm sorry. I just can't.† Brinkerhoff crossed his arms and walked out. Midge stared after him, her gray eyes smoldering. â€Å"Oh, yes you can,† she whispered. Then she turned back to Big Brother and called up the video archives. Midge'll get over it, Brinkerhoff told himself as he settled in at his desk and started going over the rest of his reports. He couldn't be expected to hand out the director's keys whenever Midge got paranoid. He had just begun checking the COMSEC breakdowns when his thoughts were interrupted by the sound of voices coming from the other room. He set down his work and walked to his doorway. The main suite was dark-all except a dim shaft of grayish light from Midge's half-open door. He listened. The voices continued. They sounded excited. â€Å"Midge?† No response. He strode through the darkness to her workspace. The voices were vaguely familiar. He pushed the door open. The room was empty. Midge's chair was empty. The sound was coming from overhead. Brinkerhoff looked up at the video monitors and instantly felt ill. The same image was playing on each one of the twelve screens-a kind of perversely choreographed ballet. Brinkerhoff steadied himself on the back of Midge's chair and watched in horror. â€Å"Chad?† The voice was behind him. He spun and squinted into the darkness. Midge was standing kitty-corner across the main suite's reception area in front of the director's double doors. Her palm was outstretched. â€Å"The key, Chad.† Brinkerhoff flushed. He turned back to the monitors. He tried to block out the images overhead, but it was no use. He was everywhere, groaning with pleasure and eagerly fondling Carmen Huerta's small, honey-covered breasts.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Ready to Eat Food

NEW ERA OF INDIAN READY TO EAT FOOD (RETORT FOOD – Having shelf life up to 18 months) Sanjeev Bhanga BRIEF India has made lot of progress in agriculture & food sectors since independence in terms of growth in output, yields and processing. It has gone through a green revolution, a white revolution, a yellow revolution and a blue revolution. Today, India is the largest producer of milk, fruits, cashew nuts, coconuts and tea in the world, the second largest producer of wheat, vegetables, sugar and fish and the third largest producer of tobacco and rice. Now the time is to provide better food processing & its marketing infrastructure for Indian industries to serve good quality & safest processed food like ready to eat food. It is opening a new window in world scenario as far as taste & acceptance is concerned. Therefore, Indian Government is providing more infrastructure for this sector. Excise duty is now ZERO % on RTE and 100 % tax deduction for the first 10 years for new units. This allows manufactures to bring down their prices & spreads its flavors to the world. The retort processed foods do not require rehydration or cooking and can be consumed straight from the pouch with or without pre-warming, depending upon the requirement of the users and the weather conditions. These foods meet the specific needs of convenience, nutritional adequacy, shelf stability, storage, distribution to the centers and have become very popular after the Year 2002. Some of the mouth-watering dishes in retort pouches include sooji halwa, upma, chicken curry, mutton curry, fish curry, chicken madras, chicken kurma, rajma masala, palak paneer, dal makhnil, mutter paneer, potato-peas, mutter mushroom, vegetable ulav chicken pulav, and mutton pulav, etc. The pioneer introduction of retorting technology has made the sale of ‘Ready-to-Eat’ food products commercially viable with great taste. CONCEPT †¢ Ready to Eat Meals like already cooked or prepared lunch & dinner are relatively new products which came in market only a few years back and are now sold through retail general stores in especially made sealed aluminum laminates. †¢ The retorting or sterilization process ensures the stability of the Ready-to-Eat foods in retort pouches, on the shelf and at room temperature. The application of sterilization technology completely destroys all potentially harmful micro-organisms, thereby making sure that the food product has a very long shelf life of over 12 months and needed no refrigeration. †¢ When customer needs to eat, the food item pouch is either put in microwave oven to warm it or keep in heated water for a few minutes and then serve to eat. †¢ Such ready to eat meals have been especially given to soldiers in army of many countries who require carrying their rations while on war front or while located far away from their main unit. The advertisements like, â€Å"Hungry Kyaa† are adding zest to the market by popularizing such food items which are precooked and free from any preservative, and yet have a long shelf life of over 12-months. These food items are normally selling in pouches, well packed in cardboard printed boxes of small book size and carry about 300 grams of cooked food at a price of about Rs. 40 to 200 in foreign marke t depending upon the type of dish packed. One packet of vegetable dish is normally sufficient for one meal for three persons and therefore falls in economic zone of consumer’s preferences. WHY READY TO EAT FOOD Globalization of Indian food and its culture are the core factors for popularization of ready to eat foods. Main motivation for these ready to eat foods is fast growing foreign market. Retail outlet culture is now growing rapidly in India. Shelf life of these foods are at least 12-18 months. Quality, Taste and Flavor of these foods remains as good as fresh up to the expiry date. Women wanting to spend more time out of the kitchen. More working bachelors staying away from homes. Cost effective in comparison to the Indian cuisine served by the restaurants in foreign countries. TYPES OF READY TO EAT FOOD Veg Food Alloo Matar Palak paneer Sarso Ka Saag Chana Masala Kadi Pakora Cheese Tomato Dal Makhani Rajma Masala Non Veg Food Chicken Curry Butter Chicken Karahi Chicken Mughalai Chicken Mutton Masala Mutton Korma Karahi Mutton Mutton Biryani Deserts Gajar Ka Haluaa / Sugi Ka Haluaa / Milk Kheer PLAYERS IN READY TO EAT FOOD MTR Kohinoor Foods ITC Haldiram Tasty Bites RETORT & ITS PACKAGING The water RETORT is an equipment or vessel or sterilization module through which steam (at 130 degree centigrade for 25 minutes) is applied on food products packed in retort pouches. The retorts use water or steam/air combination as processing medium to heat the container/packages. Compressed air or additional steam is introduced during the processing cycle to provide the overpressure (any pressure supplied to the retort in excess of that which can be normally achieved under steam at any given retort temperature). Overpressure is important in preventing package damage or loss of seal integrity (like bursting), during the heating process. Retort pouches is a flexible packaging material that basically consist of laminates or bounded layers of different packaging films of Polyster-Nylon-Aluminium-polypropylene that can withstand high process temperature & pressure. Their most important feature is that they are made of heatresistant plastics unlike the usual flexible pouches. This makes the retort pouches unique which are suitable for the processing of food contents at temperatures around 120 degrees Celsius. That is the kind of ambient temperature prevalent in the thermal sterilization of foods. There is lesser time to spend in cooking food themselves and so ready to eat foods are preferred. To get the food of different cultures, taste etc, it is important that food has good shelf life so that it can be made available at far off places too and then can be conveniently consumed also. ADVANTAGES OF RETORT PACKAGING †¢ Pouch laminates permits less chance to overcook during the retorting thus products having better color, texture & less nutrients loss. †¢ It requires less energy for sterilization. †¢ It requires less disposal & storage space. †¢ Low oxygen & moisture permeability. Shelf stable for longer time & requires no refrigeration. †¢ Sun light barrier, light weight, easy to open. MARKET & ITS GROWTH The popularity of ready to eat packed food now is no longer marks a special occasion. Peoples want value for time, money in terms of quality and variety. The food processing industry is one of the largest industries in India and it is the ranked fifth in terms of Production, Consumption, Export & Expected growth. Processed food market in India accounts for 32% that is Rs. 1280 billion or 29. 4 billion US $ in a total estimated market of Rs. 990 billion or 91. 66 US $. Euromonitor International, a market research company says that amount of money Indian spend on ready to eat snacks & food is 5 billion US $ in a year while on abroad Indian or Indian subcontinents spend 30 billion US $ in a year. Ready to eat packaged food industry is over Rs. 4000 crore or 1 billion US $ and it is growing at the rate of 20 % per annum. Ready to eat food market is developing specifically in UK, USA, Canada, Gulf & South Asian Countries with the growth rate of over 150 % per annum. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS What is retort packaging? Retort packaging is a self stable flexible package What is the shelf life of retort food? – The shelf life of a retort package is a year plus. What are the shipping advantages? – A retort package will not b reak or dent and weigh less. Where do you display the package in the retail store? – You can display at room temperature at any corner of the retail store What are some of the main reasons, a packager of consumer products would like to go from a conventional package material to a flexible retort pouch? – The package provides a flat surface for graphics and text, needs no refrigeration and is microwave compatible. What's the difference between foil and non-foil retort structures? – Non-foil retort packaging can be put in the micro wave. What about taste of products in a retort package? – People say that products packaged with retort material taste fresher and maintain a more natural flavor. What about shelf appeal? – Retort pouches are more space efficient and provide a larger surface for graphics and text. What kind of food products can be packed in retort packaging ? – All kind of veg & Non- veg food products Email: [email  protected] com

Friday, November 8, 2019

Greed Deadly sin of the students Essay Example

Greed Deadly sin of the students Essay Example Greed Deadly sin of the students Essay Greed Deadly sin of the students Essay Greed means want of something and desire to have more than what Is needed. It does not allow anybody to feel satisfied. A person always feels that he has a less than what he deserves. Greed can be affecting many college students and it can be distract the college student from the correct path of study. I agree with that greed is one of the deadly sin of students which is said by Thomas H. Benton in the The Seven Deadly Sins of Student because of the following reason. Firstly, the studying is really important because it helps all people in every step in life. If you study you will earn, learn and know everything by yourself and you will not ever have to depend on someone but because of greed, the students may distract from study and they study for better paying Jobs instead of learning something and gaining knowledge of particular field. The students will pass the exam; achieve a degree without having knowledge of that particular field and get entry level Job that hey do not really desire or which they are not really qualified. : For example, a person who achieves a degree In medical field not for helping people but actually his alma Is to get better paying Job. Moreover, a student who desire for self sufficiency, recognition, or self esteem is also one of the important factor of greediness. A student who wants to show-off that he is an intelligent, clever about that particular subject and achieving higher grade by any means for example, cheating on the exams. However, it becomes a serious problem when the student achieves a good grade by cheating and it affect negatively on the students entire life. Some students are popularizing their papers to get good grades. This type of students are getting good grades not for to achieve something but for the attract attention of the classmates and the professor. 2 Furthermore, the greedy people are always distract from their main path because they always wants different and more from others. It can be affect the student cause they are not remain focused on the particular study and also they want to achieve all at a same time. So, they divert from the main path of study and instead of getting success, they get failure and cannot finished their study. In a nutshell, I agree with the Thomas H. Benton said that the greediness of the student Is one of the deadly sin of the students because the students are earn a degree not for learning but with the alma of getting a better paying Job, students wants to show off by achieving good grade by cheating on the exam or popularize heir paper and also they are divert from the main path of study. Greed Deadly sin of the students By kaushalpate10707 is needed. It does not allow anybody to feel satisfied. A person always feels that he who achieves a degree in medical field not for helping people but actually his aim is student is one of the deadly sin of the students because the students are earn a degree not for learning but with the aim of getting a better paying Job, students wants to show off by achieving good grade by cheating on the exam or plagiarism

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Free Essays on Joy, Pain, And Pride

Joy, Pain, and Pride It all began with one simple decision that would change a life forever. A commitment that could never be took away, a life style that would be hard to break and a pride that would be there forever. The last day at home with family and friends was a day to cherish forever. You would hold onto that moment forever in your mind, until the day came when you would get to see them again. It has come down to the last few minutes that you have with your wife, children, mother, father, and everyone you cherish. Eyes are filling with tears as you turn and walk off, but their hearts are screaming with pride, love, and fear for you. You turn around to take one last mental picture in your head, one to keep forever, one that cannot be taking away or lost. They all watch with heavy hearts, until they can no longer see that man anymore. That is all they know for now, until they get that one five minute phone call, if they even get it. They might receive a letter in the mail that was dated t wo weeks ago. Every day while you are gone they continue on with their daily life. Monday it’s going to the grocery store. Wednesday its football practice, but no matter what day it is that man is on their mind every minute. The wives will go to the park on Thursday to let the kids play together, trying to keep their lives as normal as possible. Every meal there is the one empty chair that no one sits in cause it was â€Å"Daddy’s† chair. At night children are sleeping with their mothers to get some type of comfort. All with the vision of a man all alone with only that one mental picture in his mind. Everyday spouses and children are running to the mail, just the same as the man is, waiting just to see if there is that one letter to let everyone know that all is ok. Birthdays come and go, maybe there will be a phone call. The holidays are soon approaching, with parties for the families left behind to fill the spaces of thei... Free Essays on Joy, Pain, And Pride Free Essays on Joy, Pain, And Pride Joy, Pain, and Pride It all began with one simple decision that would change a life forever. A commitment that could never be took away, a life style that would be hard to break and a pride that would be there forever. The last day at home with family and friends was a day to cherish forever. You would hold onto that moment forever in your mind, until the day came when you would get to see them again. It has come down to the last few minutes that you have with your wife, children, mother, father, and everyone you cherish. Eyes are filling with tears as you turn and walk off, but their hearts are screaming with pride, love, and fear for you. You turn around to take one last mental picture in your head, one to keep forever, one that cannot be taking away or lost. They all watch with heavy hearts, until they can no longer see that man anymore. That is all they know for now, until they get that one five minute phone call, if they even get it. They might receive a letter in the mail that was dated t wo weeks ago. Every day while you are gone they continue on with their daily life. Monday it’s going to the grocery store. Wednesday its football practice, but no matter what day it is that man is on their mind every minute. The wives will go to the park on Thursday to let the kids play together, trying to keep their lives as normal as possible. Every meal there is the one empty chair that no one sits in cause it was â€Å"Daddy’s† chair. At night children are sleeping with their mothers to get some type of comfort. All with the vision of a man all alone with only that one mental picture in his mind. Everyday spouses and children are running to the mail, just the same as the man is, waiting just to see if there is that one letter to let everyone know that all is ok. Birthdays come and go, maybe there will be a phone call. The holidays are soon approaching, with parties for the families left behind to fill the spaces of thei...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

How Soccer Explains the World Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

How Soccer Explains the World - Essay Example Franklin Foer, whilst penning this book has taken a close look at the role that soccer has played in the global cultivation of competition, mad rivalry that has sparked off a number of controversies, varied sagas and what not. He has discussed issues like world trade as well as the linkage of the Western culture where soccer celebrities like Zidane, Ronaldo and Beckham are perceived to be the biggest that there were and still are in the world. They have no less a value when we compare them to American President Bush or even the beheaded Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein. There are the sport mad societies that he has openly discussed as well as the role of this game in religions like that of Islam, the phenomenon like hooliganism and so on and so forth. The justification that Foer has provided raises quite a few eye brows since there is enough food for thought as concerns to the game itself and the working methodologies which go hand in hand with the Western way of doing things, one such igniting a level of competition that is bound to be remarked as unmatchable right from the onset. Franklin Foer has remained passionate throughout his book, so much so that his passion knows no boundaries whilst raising an energy which looks all the more contagious than anything else. The religious sentiments that he has brought forward are however a step further than the passion that he has discussed in his book courtesy the game itself. Foer has made sure that his book brings to life with the portraits and profiles of different players like the ones hailing from Nigeria and then there are the issues which restrict sports participation on the part of the Iranian women as well. There are the parallel worlds of Brazilian soccer as well as politics which Pele went into and hence game became so much more politicized as a result of this. What Foer wants to highlight is the fact that the aspect of globalization has

Friday, November 1, 2019

Obsessive-Complusive PD Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Obsessive-Complusive PD - Essay Example Most of their waking hours are spent in worrying about unwanted thoughts and mental images (Hyman & Pedrick, 2009, p.7). People suffering from obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are incapable of leading a normal life as their obsession draws most of their energy, and most of their actions are influenced by their obsessions. Hence, the only way to cure the Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is to manage the obsessive thoughts through different psychological therapies, as only by managing and understanding the nature of obsessive and compulsive thoughts can one manage the obsessive-compulsive behavior. Definition To understand OCD, it is important to define the words ‘obsession’ and ‘compulsion’. DSM-IV (1994) defines obsession as â€Å"persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate and that cause marked anxiety or distress† (Jakes, 1996, p.6). DSM-IV (1994) defines compulsions as â€Å"the r epetitive behavior and mental acts† which are intended â€Å"to remove anxiety or distress and not to provide pleasure or gratification† (Jakes, 1996, p.6). Hence, according to DSM-IV (1994), OCD can be diagnosed when the excessiveness and the unreasonable nature of the obsessive and compulsive behavior and thoughts is realized by the people suffering from it (Jakes, 1996, p.6). ... To cure OCD, it is necessary to understand the cause of it. Nature Of OCD Researches in past 60 years have found that OCD is a disorder that depends on different factors (Pauls, Alsobrook, Goodman, Rasmussen & Leckman, 1995, p.76), and hence, it is not easy to reach the conclusion regarding its nature. Familial history was found to be factor in some cases of OCD, while in other cases, there was no evidence of familial history (Pauls et al., 1995, p.76). This shows that the basis of OCD is still controversial. It was widely believed that the genes are responsible for the OCD in human beings (Arnold & Richter, 2001, p. 1353). However, no specific genetic factor has been identified as responsible for OCD (Arnold & Richter, 2001, p. 1353). This led the researchers to believe that when the â€Å"underlying genetic susceptibility† interacts with the environmental risk factors, then it results in obsessive-compulsive behavior pattern and leads to development of OCD in that person (Ar nold & Richter, 2001, p. 1353). Hence, it is very necessary to detect the OCD as soon as the symptoms start appearing in a person. However, it has been found that most of the times, OCD goes undetected. OCD is not common in young children (Heyman, Fombonne, Simmons, Ford, Meltzer & Goodman, 2001, p.324). However, the rate of OCD in young adults in their puberty has been found to be increasing (Heyman et al., 2001, p.324). Hence, it is important to detect OCD early to manage it in behavior. Researches in many countries have revealed that one out of every forty people suffer from OCD (Hyman & Pedrick, 2009, p.17). OCD develops gradually in personality (Hyman & Pedrick, 2009, p.19). However, an unexpected distressing event in