Saturday, August 31, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬ is a poem written by prominent Harlem Renaissance writer Claude McKay. In this poem we are told about life in America through the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. It is through the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢ experience that McKay delivers his message, America will one day lose its greatness if it continues in its evil ways. Personification and diction is used to convey this message. Personification is used to give human-like qualities to America. Diction is used to explain how the hostility he/she experiences in America leads to the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s ominous prediction of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s future. Throughout the poem the speaker refers to America as Ã¢â¬ËherÃ¢â¬â¢. By doing this Claude McKay uses personification to give America the human-like qualities of a female. This is shown in lines 1-3: Ã¢â¬Å"Although she feeds me bread of bitterness/And sinks into my throat her tigerÃ¢â¬â¢s tooth/ stealing my breath of lifeÃ¢â¬ . In the first part of line 1 where it says, Ã¢â¬Å"Although she feeds me breadÃ¢â¬ , this implies that America is something like a mother figure. However, the fact that America feeds the narrator bread of bitterness, bites his/her throat, and steals his/her breath of life, itÃ¢â¬â¢s obvious that America does not treat the speaker well. In line 11, it states, Ã¢â¬Å"Darkly I gaze into the days aheadÃ¢â¬ . The word Ã¢â¬ËdarklyÃ¢â¬â¢ implies that as a result of the hostility he/she experiences; the narrator has an ominous view of the future. When McKay says, Ã¢â¬Å"her might and granite wonders thereÃ¢â¬ (line 12), it can be inferred that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s global power and beautiful land are included in the narrators dark future. Ã¢â¬Å"Like priceless treasures sinking in the sandÃ¢â¬ (line 14). This line best illustrates McKayÃ¢â¬â¢s message that America will one day lose its greatness if it continues in its evil ways when you take into account the definition of the word sinking. Sinking means to be failing in health and strength. This led me to believe that line 14 means that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s greatness and beautiful land that we cherish so much will eventually cease to exist. I believe the treatment the narrator receives in Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬ by Claude McKay, is based on his own experience during the Harlem Renaissance. The use of personification to represent America and clever word choice allow McKay to deliver his message. This message is that America will one day lose its greatness if it continues in its evil ways.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Although it is rather a subjective concept, Ã¢â¬Å"literary meritÃ¢â¬ essentially means the worth, quality, or excellence of a writing relative to other well-renowned literary masterpieces. In a Constitutional framework, the absence or presence of literary merit would determine the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s limits to freedom of expression. To possess literary merit would mean that the work is not obscene. The landmark case of Miller vs. California enumerates key guidelines to ascertain the literary merit of a particular text, to wit: 1) Whether the average person, applying contemporary community standards would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interestÃ¢â¬ ¦ 2) Ã Whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law , and 3) Ã Whether the work, taken as a whole lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value. (Miller vs. California, 37 L. Ed. 2nd 419, 431 (1973)) Fundamentally speaking, in any framework, to have literary merit is to have value. The popularity of Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Dracula has reached such endemic proportions that it has been claimed to be the most recognized book next to the Bible. A Victorian novel with the distinctive gothic appeal toward the macabre, Dracula has undeniably become a classic milestone in horror fiction. Establishing its literary merit however, is a different matter. A review from The Athenaeum, an influential periodical in Victorian England described the novel as Ã¢â¬Å"sensational.Ã¢â¬ The review further states: Dracula is highly sensational, but it is wanting in the constructive art as well as in the higher literary sense. It reads at times like a mere series of grotesquely incredible events; but there are better moments that show more power, though even these are never productive of the tremor such subjects evoke under the hand of a master. (The Athenaeum, 26 June 1897). Emphasis supplied. The unremitting succession of the bizarre, the gross and the fantastic, as explained in the review, would seem tantamount to a lack of refinement in the Ã¢â¬Å"higher literary sense.Ã¢â¬ This observation was supplemented by another review of the same sentiment: The plot is too complicated for reproduction, but it says no little for the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s power that in spite of its absurdities the reader can follow the story with interest to the end. It is, however, an artistic mistake to fill a whole volume with horrors. A touch of the mysterious, the terrible, or the supernatural is infinitely more effective and credible. (Manchester Guardian, 15 June 1897). Emphasis supplied. As interpreted, instead of relying on the intelligence of the reader to grasp on their own the significance of subtle nuances and take in the various shifts and twists in the story as it evolves, Stoker instantly and unceasingly bombards the reader with an onslaught of palpable and shocking horrific scenes as if the reader is too untrustworthy and unsophisticated to deal with subtleties. If there seems to be little literary merit in the intellectual or scholarly sense, Dracula is still credited for its universal allure. The Pall Mall Gazette, in a commentary of Dracula states: Ã¢â¬ ¦the story deals with the Vampire King, and it is horrid and creepy to the last degree. It is also excellent, and one of the best things in the supernatural line that we have been lucky enough to hit upon. (Pall Mall Gazette, 1 June 1897). Emphasis supplied. The universal allure of Dracula is probably in its resurrection of the vampire lore in a straightforward, practical and illustrative fashion. A vivid and uncomplicated quote from the novel confirms this:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"I shall cut off her head and fill her mouth with garlic, and I shall drive a stake through her bodyÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 261). The novelÃ¢â¬â¢s refreshing simplicity is also evidenced in the following review: Ã Here, for the latest example, is Mr. Bram Stoker taking in hand the old-world legend of the Were-wolf or vampire, with all its weird and exciting associations of blood-sucking and human flesh devouring, and interweaving it with the threads of a long story with an earnestness, a directness, and a simple good faith which ought to go far to induce readers of fiction to surrender their imaginations into the novelistÃ¢â¬â¢s hands. (The Daily News, 27 May 1897). Emphasis supplied. While Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula is deficient in literary refinement, it nonetheless is considered to have literary merit by virtue of the fact that it captures manÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination. It certainly has value for having the extraordinary capacity to fascinate multitudes across time. Ultimately, its worth, quality or excellence is confirmed by its ceaseless popularity. Works Cited Books Miller, Elizabeth. Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula: A Documentary Volume. Detroit: Gale, 2004. Stoker, Bram. Dracula. London: Penguin Books, 1994. Articles Ã¢â¬Å"Dracula.Ã¢â¬ The Athenaeum 26 June 1897: 235. Ã¢â¬Å"Dracula.Ã¢â¬ The Daily News 27 May 1897. Ã¢â¬Å"Dracula, by Bram Stoker.Ã¢â¬ Manchester Guardian 15 June 1897. Ã¢â¬Å"For Midnight Reading.Ã¢â¬ Pall Mall Gazette 1 June 1897. Jurisprudence Miller vs. California, 37 L. Ed. 2nd 419, 431 (1973).
Mary Wollstonecraft was no doubt a great feminist and deserved to be called grandmother of the feminist thought. Her early experiences of an unsuccessful family life as well as the prevailing notion of the philosophers at that time about women shaped her views to become authentic feminist grand mother. WollstonecraftÃ¢â¬â¢s feminist ideas affected the first wave of feminism through her arguments against the prevailing views on women most notably that of RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s which categorized women as subservient to men. Rousseau held that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s education should be designed entirely to make them pleasing to men. Rousseau reflected Ã¢â¬Å"to please, to be useful to us, to make us love and esteem them, to educate us when young and take care of us when grown up, to advise, to console us, to render our lives easy and agreeableÃ¢â¬âthese are duties of women at all timesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Feminist Philosophy). Against this view, Wollstonecraft work hard to emphasize that the role of women in the society were not simply an ornaments and playthings of men as they are also capable of attaining masculine virtues of wisdom and rationality Ã¢â¬Å"if society would allow those value to be cultivatedÃ¢â¬ (p.475-476). Wollstonecraft pointed out that the prevailing views on women had bad implications not only on women but on society as well as they will only breed bitterness, jealousy, and folly. She affected the first wave of feminist by encouraging them Ã¢â¬Å"to restore women to their lost dignity by encouraging better ideas of woman hoodÃ¢â¬ (p. 476). How did Simone de Beauvoirs writing shape the second wave? The second wave of feminism was a resurgence of early feminism as a result of various works of feminists during the 1940s such as her works. De Beauvoir writings shaped the second wave of feminism by shedding light about what is a woman in the concept of being other, and how men views women during this period. In her writings de Beauvoir shed social understanding on womanhood. She pointed out that the fundamental social meaning of woman is Other. She explained, Ã¢â¬Å"No group ever sets itself up as the One without at once setting up the Other over against itselfÃ¢â¬ (p. 479). The thought that de Beauvoir was pointing out was that men do not view women as human being like them but as Others who are to be treated as stranger that do not deserve equal treatment. The implication of menÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of women as Others according to de Beauvoir was that because women are others, they do not need to be given Ã¢â¬Å"equal weight to their preferencesÃ¢â¬ simply because they are others (p. 480). DebeauvoirÃ¢â¬â¢s writings shaped the second wave of feminism through her unique way of providing social understanding about how women were regarded by men during this period. How did the events of the first and second wave affect each other? Apparently, the event of the first and the second wave of feminism affect each other in a way that they connect the second wave to the first. The second wave feminist was inspired by the events during the first wave to tag along their path of pushing for the recognition of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Apparently, the events of the first wave feminist shaped the understanding of the second wave feminism about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights, against the existing social and philosophical views on women. Thus, the events of the first wave serves as mirror for the second wave, and as inspiration for them to continue womenÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle for the restoration of their lost dignity as women equal with men in many aspect, especially on human rights. Reference More-Bruder: Philosophy: The Power of Ideas (2008) Feminist Philosophy The McGraw-Hill Companies
Thursday, August 29, 2019
What Makes Advertising Effective - Essay Example To make the mind of the customer orient towards the product and importantly entice, push them or even Ã¢â¬ËseduceÃ¢â¬â¢ them to make the buying decision, advertising plays a key role. To achieve that for an organization, the entire marketing department in association with other departments will initiate various marketing strategies. Among the many marketing strategies, advertising occupies a prominent role. Ã¢â¬Å"Advertising plays a very important role in the marketing process. It increases the consumption of a particular product or service and reinforces the image of the brands, by continuously raising awarenessÃ¢â¬ (Blurt It). For a successful marketing strategies and importantly to come up with effective advertising campaigns, it is of great importance to first find out and focus on the mental state and the resultant behaviors that will be shown by the prospective customers before they makes the crucial buying decision. So, one of the key aspects of coming up with an effec tive advertising campaign is understanding these mindsets of the customers. Then, the other key aspects will be the creativity, shock factors and other enticing factors featured in the advertisements. Among these factors, one of the key factors that make advertising not only a roaring success and also makes an in-depth impact on the customers is the emotion aspects featured in the advertisements. So, this paper will discuss the aspects that makes advertising an effective at the same time a successful one, particularly how the incorporation of emotional elements can make the advertisements optimally effective. Advertising is a way of attempting to persuade the audience in order to purchase a certain product or service. It is a way of communicating in order to encourage the audience to continue using or buy a new product or service. It can be a way of informing or reassuring the employees or shareholders of a certain company that it is still feasible and thriving. Advertisers use the mass media including newspapers, television, radio, magazines, or posters in order to reach the intended audience. New ways of advertising include the use of mails, websites, and text messages. Ã¢â¬Å"Advertisements appear in many various forms and across all media (new and traditional). They are, basically, short messages inserted into the flow of a broadcast programme, or in a magazine or newspaper.Ã¢â¬ (MacRury 2009). The pattern of the advertisements will differ according to the purposes and the product or service, which has to be advertised. However, there is a common pattern. This was also pointed out by MacRury (2009) who state Advertisements Ã¢â¬Å"invite the audience to consider the advertising proposition (for 30 seconds during the 'break', or as their eyes drift over a story feature towards a half-page photograph) Ã¢â¬â a commercial 'interlude' to the main media communication Ã¢â¬â and against the flow of other advertising communicationsÃ¢â¬ . One of the basic aspects which will make the advertisements effective is, understanding the targeted customersÃ¢â¬â¢ background, particularly the cultural aspects and come up with in ad campaign. Studies Ã¢â¬Å"have prioritised the psychological, social and cultural contexts within which consumers relate to commercial information and the roles that marketing media play in their livesÃ¢â¬ (Aitken, Gray and Lawson 2008). As per these studies, people get influenced by marketing strategies based on their cultural background and hence the consumer is actually the focal point of an advertisement and not the advertisement itself per se. Effective advertisi
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Should Prisoners Lodging Be More Spartan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words
Should Prisoners Lodging Be More Spartan - Essay Example The punishment sought to inflict pain in the body of the guilty. The nineteenth century represented a more civilized and humanitarian response to wrongdoing and penology seeks a humanitarian aspect of 'imprisonment' by reduction of rights rather than infliction of pain. Life in prison is more disciplined and tough to transform the idleness and social irresponsibility of the prisoner into more constructive one. (Sundaram 24) whole idea of incarceration is punishment, not comfort. These critics would argue that conditions of the prisoners should be spartan, if not hard. But, the hard treatment should not be inhumanness and degradingness. Environment such as overcrowded prisons, an inadequate low calorie diet, unsanitary conditions that go unrectified, are inhumane. The person who has committed a crime by breaking law is deprived of some liberty in a prison environment. The lodging conditions should not be so constrained that the prisoners are deprived of the kinds of choices that manifest their human standing and self-respect. They should be having freedom to worship, access to the courts and to express their opinions on various matters. (Victor 225) What kinds of comforts may prisoners expect to have Prisoners lodging should have some basic needs such as disease-free beds, a place to write, sanitary toilet and washing facilities, and access to current information about the world outside should have access to medical care. Should they expect color TVs, video players, and movies of their choice, coffeemakers, libraries, and so on Or should prisoners be deprived of cigarettes, access to the entertainment and news media, have their mail censored, and required to perform hard labor. If we make it worse then we aren't really increasing their punishment much, having to be in jail and all the other problems with being in jail is tough enough. If we cut down on the few luxuries that they have then will be harder to control. Page 3 As rightly quoted by Victor Hassine, from JPP1 - "People who believe prisoners are not being punished point with disdain to a color television set and a ghetto blaster in a prison cell to support their arguments. To them, it appears that physical, emotional, and psychological pain that one can see with the naked eye is the only real form of punishment. Likewise, there are parents who punish their children by physical beatings because they believe anything short of physical pain will not be effective. I suggest the same applies to some guards and their daily treatment of prisoners. If a prisoner is not in obvious pain and anguish, if he is not being made to visibly suffer, punishment is not being properly administered. Still, any person who has suffered long term emotional and psychological abuse would be horrified that anyone would be so lacking in insight and understanding that they would point to
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Management Style - Essay Example Currently, the management of the firm is focused on the creation of management structures that will enable the expansion of its core strength as a global technology, electronic and entertainment company. The current Chief Executive Officer is Kazuo Hirai. The responsibility of the C.E.O is to run the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s business operations globally. Sony Corporation is a design and production intensive firm. The founders of the firm provided the platform for the current design management style used by the current managers (Nagasawa, 2013). Design management style uses design, project management, supply chain techniques and strategy to control a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s creative processes. The style is suitable to Sony because it establishes a structure and organization for design. It also supports a culture of creativity. Design management is based on the objective of developing and maintaining a business environment where companies and organizations can achieve their mission and strategic goals through design (Chang, 2011). Sony uses this style because of its strategic advantages in the establishment and management of effective and efficient system. Design management covers all areas of a business. These range from operational and strategic activities to the discovery phases and implementation phases. The management style encompasses ong oing processes, strategies that facilitate innovation and business decision making. Most importantly, design management works in hand with operational, marketing and strategic management. SonyÃ¢â¬â¢s design management approach is focused on asset management. In this case, the firm highly values its assets, which range from its innovative products, human resources and projects (Borja, 2003). Design management approaches asset management with an objective of creating value. The style also approaches attitude management with an aim of adjusting employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s mental attitudes (Nagasawa, 2013).
Monday, August 26, 2019
Case study on Wilson Construction - Essay Example The best option for the company is trying to increase its revenue base in order to improve the situation. Just having two or three projects supporting such a large purchase is not feasible and hence the company should market more often to attract more customers. In case these are two exhaustive options, the company should clearly select the option b because it is yielding a lower negative number and hence if the company wants to save its position it should try to adopt the option b. Money rates of returns do not reflect the time value of money. All economies face the phenomenon that the purchasing power of money constantly falls with the passage of time. Hence, inflation is needed to be taken into account in order to arrive at the real rate of return or rate of returns that are adjusted against inflation. The discounting factor of 23 percent has been adjust by multiplying it by 104 in order to arrive at the inflation adjusted discount rate to give better idea regarding the position o f the company and how much it should earn in order to safeguard its position against falling value of a dollar due to inflation and alternative projects that are available to a company. This way the money return has been adjusted to real return and provides a better picture of how much return the company needs to earn on its projects to safeguard the value of its wealth in real terms and to make sure that it is not losing money. If a company does not pay heed to the time value of money it cannot tell whether it has made or lost money and hence it is considered one of the fundamental concepts of finance and needs to be taken into account every time the company needs to make an important decision. This will make sure that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources are being used for earning proper returns and not just money returns that are not adjusted against inflation. Given the scenario it can be said that there are several factors that should affect the viability of ALII. These include how m uch saving using a faster crane would be made. All the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s processes would become more efficient and it would save some money, but the question does not speak about it and if all of this is taken into account, the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s NPV would very well be positive. Other than that, there will be other factors like financing options, providing the financer with a collateral, impact of this purchase on the taxes for example, the company can use diminishing balance method and charge high depreciation rates to its balance sheet in order to get a saving in taxes. All of this should be taken into account and the company should also hire some good finance managers and should not rely on amateur finance people who do not know about the jack of the problem and their discussion is nothing but laymanÃ¢â¬â¢s observation of the issue. Hence, the best thing for the company is to hire some specialist finance people who have better information than the current participants of the meeti ng who do not
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Summary for an article of political economy subject - Essay Example Although disregarded by many, neo-liberalisation jumped the barriers into active politics establishing themselves as the best politics nationally and internationally. By 1971, United States, Australia, Britain, and New Zealand adopted these ideas to their domestic programmes. By 1980, Neo-liberalism had grown to higher levels in Britain and United states such that it sidelined Keynesianism and social alternatives. It formed the pattern that shaped all the other policies even if its rationality would still be contested. Non-English speaking countries like Japan, Germany, and Sweden thought Neo-liberal ideas as defensive to shore up the model of capitalism, which was under pressure from other successful models. Additionally, Neo liberalism model was thought as an-outdated capitalist model that lacked analytical tools to direct policies and remedies to problems. However, Neo-liberalism remained prominent on state economies of Britons and Americans. In 1990s, neo-liberalisation triumphed after the failure of public capitalists of Germans, Swedes, and Japanese. Neo-liberalism became the dominant ideology of analysing capitalism as a global network of accumulation. One paramount influence of Neo-liberalism is that it gives priority to capital as resources rather than capital as production. This way it would give the means to disengage from commitments taken up from the Keynesian era. Many politicians are adamant to keep neo-liberalisation, which makes it difficult to win electoral support by itself. Neo-liberalism has some limitations, but some of its ideologies establish a solid basis for political and economic
Saturday, August 24, 2019
How do stock price volatility affect monetary policy - Essay Example Therefore they have an effect on interest rates, inflation rates and money supply. These variables are controlled by monetary policy made by the central banks of countries or federal reserves and the policy determination is therefore depended on the stock prices. This paper discusses how the movements in stock prices affect determination of monetary policy. Monetary policy is the process by which the central bank or a federal reserve regulates the money supply and interest rates in order to achieve a major economic goal. On the other hand the stock market is considered as the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic strength and development since itÃ¢â¬â¢s a non-physical facility of economic transactions. In any particular country, the economy strongly reacts to stock prices movement and in most cases economic recession is preceded by crash in stock markets. There is a very important relationship between the central banks of countries and stock markets. This makes the monetary authorities to make monetary decisions and policies by closely monitoring the stock market volatility. This ensures the authorities maintain a macroeconomic balance. According to Rigobon and sack 2001, volatility of stock prices significantly impact macroeconomics hence an important factor in determining the monetary policy. As mentioned earlier, this paper discusses the how stock price volatility affects monetary policy. This is addressed by using simple models of data from the international monetary fund in the quarterly series as at December 2010. The data used in the research is UK data ranging from 1990 first quarter to 2010 fourth quarter. The variables contained in this data set are the real UK GDP (RGDP), the consumer price index (CPI) and the interest rates set by the Bank of England The international monetary fund has 188 member countries. These countries work to foster global monetary cooperation, financial stability security, reduce poverty around the world, and promote sustainable
Friday, August 23, 2019
Emerging Wireless Technology in the Healthcare Industry - Assignment Example In fact, these investments have caused enhanced efficiency, the implementation of new processes and high quality of services. In spite of all these developments the healthcare sector failed to take pleasure in the efficiency and improvements since the healthcare sector has always been working under inadequate resources. With the passage of time, the strategy makers, decision makers, operators, and other stakeholders realized the importance of information and communication technology, in particular wireless technology and observed a chance to deal with some of the major issues the healthcare industry is facing (Hafeez-Baig & Gururajan, 2009). This paper discusses the use of wireless technologies in healthcare sector. The paper also outlines the advantages and drawbacks of wireless technologies in the context of the healthcare sector. A large number of researches have shown that the use of wireless computing can help healthcare firms deal with some of the critical problems for instance reduction in expenditures, quality of care, reduction in errors, shortages of human resources, reduction in financial support, and high satisfaction levels among employees and customers. For instance, an electronically readable code can be assigned to a patient registering in a hospital and an employee using wireless devices can insert vital information straightforwardly into the hospital network. In the same way, wireless devices can be utilized to connect a patient's body to a variety of hospital machines and devices with the purpose of keeping records of medical data for instance heart function, blood pressure and these important features can be straightforwardly recorded, regularly monitored and assessed by healthcare professionals both within and outside the hospital (Hafeez-Baig & Gururajan, 2009). According to (Gururajan & Murugesan, 2005), in healthcare sector wireless technology is utilized as an umbrella term which involves the use of a wide range of wireless devices such as personal digital assistants, mobile and handheld computers, mobile phones, wireless computer networks pagers and mobile and wireless communications. As discussed above, in healthcare sector wireless technologies can be used for completing a wide variety of tasks. For instance, wireless technologies can be utilized by healthcare professionals to access patient data and records, to collect and store data and records of patients at the point of entry or to enter or update definite predefined data/information with the purpose of processing billing related issues (Gururajan & Murugesan, 2005). In addition, through these wireless technologies and handheld devices, healthcare professionals can perform different tests, advise medicines, and ask for additional services straightforwardly from the patient's bed. One of the most important advantages for the healthcare sector is that wireless devices can offer care as well as other connected services, anywhere, at any time, and at an afforda ble price, at the point of care in extremely competitive surroundings. For that reason, it can be said that the implementation and use of wireless technologies can be significant for successful survival and improvement of healthcare sector. In fact, in addition to a reduction in the need for additional hardware/operating
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Globalisation, Terrorism and Security - Essay Example Terrorism always stems up in the weakest of classes within a society. (THACKRAH, 2004) Its infancy is thus bred and nourished in the lowest of classes within the culture. This weak class in a third world nation is in reality the masses. What people think about the form of government is really given an air of indifferent experiences when terrorism starts to crop up all of a sudden. This creates a feeling of hatred for the governmental institutions as well as the people at the helm of affairs, i.e., the ones who are generating the policies and are running the government. (OOTS, 1986) It is a fact that terrorism demands of people to change their way of looking and expecting something, if they do for that matter, from the government. It has been the case for many years that whenever government within a certain country is in a position of economic and defense power, terrorism creeps up out of the blue and mesmerizes its democratic institutions beyond repair and restoration. The need of the hour on these countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ part is to fight against the terrorist activities with a stern hand but in a more disciplined and ethical fashion. If the same is not done, hatred is the most common of reactions that have been seen for time immemorial for these countries. Terrorism has changed the face of the world. The people of this world have started to feel unsafe whenever they are within a horde and thus different assumptions have started to come about as concerns to the basis of different congregations, events, concerts and so on and so forth. This has really presented a ver y grim picture of the peace aspect related with this world. It has to be changed and there needs to be thinking mindset shift within the global populace to start with. People need to understand their respective responsibilities and then echo the same in the light of the
An Evening Walk by the Sea Shore Essay After a hard dayÃ¢â¬â¢s work, nothing is more refreshing than a quiet walk along the shore of the sea. While the exercise is good for our bodies, the presence of the ocean seems to have a peÃ culiarly tranquillizing influence upon our minds. Every sight and sound inspires a spirit of rest and peacefulness; and the effect is enhanced by the absence of the sights and sounds to which we have been exposed throughout the day. It is a delightful change, after escaping from the noisy bustle of our daily work, to hear the ceaseless music of the waves, and to breathe the fresh sea-breezes instead of the vitiated atmosphere of office or class-room. During our walk along the margin of the sea we enjoy the view of the broad expanse of waters spread out before our eyes, an unfailing source of delight to any one capable of appreciating the beauties of nature. For the ocean in all its changeful moods never ceases to be beautiful, and is especially beautiful at the hour of sunset. The spectacle presented by the setting sun, as it sinks beneath the ocean wave, is one of the greatest charms of an evening walk by the seashore. In India, for the greater part of the year, the clouds, whose fantastic shapes and brilliant hues add so much to the beauty of an English sunset, are wanting. But even in a cloudless sky when Ã¢â¬Å"the broad sun is sinking down, in his tranquilityÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the gentleness of heavens on the sea,Ã¢â¬ the spectacle presented to the eye is full of claim beauty. For some time after the sun has set, the sky is suffused with delicate tints of colour, until the first stars begin to appear on its darkening surface, and day finally gives place to night. In the beginning and the end of the monsoon we have splendid specimens of cloudy sunset, such as surpass the most vivid description given by EnÃ glish poets, and would, if faithfully depicted on canvas, be conÃ demned as exaggerated representations of nature. At this time of year, while the evening sky is still of an intense blue, the clouds are tinged with gold, and purple, and all the colors of the rainbow, and the sea beneath repeats the brilliant coloring of the sky and the clouds above. From such a revelation of the beauties of nature the poor man derives as much pleasure as the choicest collection of paintÃ ings and sculptures and other works of art affords to the millionÃ aire. Indeed, when we look with reverent awe upon the sea and sky at the hour of sunset, it does not seemÃ strange to us that the great powers of nature were once worshipped as gods; and the tranquillizing effect that the sea, especially in the evening, has upon the spectator, enables us to understand how the ancients found it natural to go to the shore and pour out their sorrows to the sea, when the hearts were overburdened with care and no mortal being seemed capable of giving consolation. Wordsworth, the great English poet, felt and beautifully expressed this in his sonnet beginning. Ã¢â¬Å"The world is too much with us,Ã¢â¬ in which he mourned the fact that most people had lost the power of appreÃ ciating the beauty of nature, by giving themselves up to business and worldly pleasure Ã¢â¬Å"late and soon, Getting and spending we lay waste our powers.Ã¢â¬ He ends with this passionate outburst of desire for the old Greek love and reverence for nature. Ã¢â¬Å"Great God! IÃ¢â¬â¢d rather be A Pagan suckled in a creed outworn, so might I, standing on this pleasant lea, Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn; Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea; Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn.Ã¢â¬
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Technology Impact THE IMPACT OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY ON INFORMATION AND STRATEGY IN THE RETAIL Industry EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: This report examines CRMs impact on information use and strategy in the retail sector. Regarding CRMs impact on information use the reports reveal that CRMs data warehousing, automation, mining, knowledge management and knowledge sharing capabilities have significantly impacted how organisations retain, share and disseminate information to relevant areas of the business. Key information on buying trends, customer profiles can be elicited so that appropriate modifications can be made regarding pricing, product, promotional and other elements to provide enhanced products and services. CRM, for many retail organisations, has meant information is now used as a source of competitive advantage. Examining CRMs impact on strategy, the report illustrates through the MIT90s framework that strategic alignment between CRM technology and the organisations structure, its strategy, its people and culture is essential for technology to be integrated effectively. The reports findings reveal numerous barriers to CRM. These centre on an over focus on the technical-requirements than on business strategy, a lack of cross-functional coordination, failure to support monitor and evaluate CRM performance, an unreceptive organisational culture to technological change and an inability to see CRM implementation from a holistic approach. An unwillingness to share information and knowledge was also highlighted as a potential inhibitor to unlocking CRM potential. Evidence illustrates that barriers essentially fall under a strategic misalignment between technology, structure, strategy or culture of an organisation. In response, a number of recommendations to aid retail organisations in unlocking CRM potential are provided. These include: a holistic perspective towards CRM implementation; a focus on strategic alignment between CRM and the organisations strategy, structure, individuals and culture; a CRM strategy, outlining its strategic objectives; understan ding the organisations data needs; encouraging organisational agility to provide a more adaptable structure that CRM technology can be integrated more easily into; introducing tailored recruitment and training programs to foster the right CRM competencies backed with an effective incentive system and the facilitating a communal culture organisational culture emphasising teamwork, empowerment, communication, innovation and a strong customer orientation. INTRODUCTION: With managing customer relationships now central to organisational success (Kohli et al, 2001; OHalloran, 2003; Nguyen et al, 2007), developing long-term customer relationships through user enabling Customer Relationship Management (CRM) technology has moved to the Ã¢â¬Ëtop of the corporate priority list for many retail organisations (Smith, 2006:87). But what precisely are the direct implications CRM has on information and on strategy? and why is that many CRM projects in the past have failed? What can retail organisations do to ensure CRM success? It is these areas that this report seeks to explore within a retail sector context. The author has selected to investigate these areas in a retail sector context due to its sheer growth, impact and scale of usage within this industry (Anon, 2009). It has revolutionised the way retail companies utilise data to identify key information trends and thus elicit and apply this knowledge to potentially increase profits (Miller, 1999). The repo rts main body is therefore split into two sections, with section one examining the impact CRM technology has on information use and section two, using the MIT90s framework, exploring the potential consequences CRM has on strategy for retail organisations. Lastly, barriers associated to successful CRM implementation are considered and recommendations presented as to how retail organisations can fully unlock and capitalise on their CRM capabilities. SECTION 1: USE OF TECHNOLOGY The following section provides an explanation of CRM from a theoretical standpoint, through an analysis of literature definitions and a practical one, in terms of hardware, software and data structures. 1.1 Explanation of Technology The range of CRM definitions emerging over the years have provided many interpretations of what precisely CRM is and does (McKie, 2000). Broader, arguably looser definitions view CRM as a natural progression from relationship marketing (Light, 2001), where Ã¢â¬Ëinformation systemsÃ¢â¬ ¦enable organisations to realise a customer focus (Bull, 2005:593). Richer, complex definitions view CRM technology enabling organisations via the utilisation of customer related information to Ã¢â¬Ëfoster closer relationships with their customers (Levine, 2000; Hsieh, 2009:416). More specifically, McNally (2007:169) defines CRM as a Ã¢â¬Ëstrategic process addressing all aspects associated with identifying customers, creating customer knowledge, building customer relationships, and shaping organisation and product perceptions. Nguyen (et al, 2007:103) echoes this, but provides a more simplified version, Ã¢â¬ËCRM is a strategic process that helps companies better understand their customers needs so they can provide these needs to their customers at the right time while improving the companys processes. The emphasis on strategic process in the former two definitions fits particularly well when explaining how CRM works in the retail sector in terms of hardware, software and data structures. Here transactional data from EPOS sales systems, web systems, sales contact systems systems and loyalty schemes (data) through automated data capture is sent to the client server mainframe at head office (hardware) where an analysis of relationships (using software) is conducted (Mutch, 2008). It is then data warehoused and structured in a way that allows the user (with the use of CRM tools) to extract patterns and relationships on important trends, such as information on particular customer profile groups and their purchasing habits, average spend, preference for offers etc. This can then be utilised to identify potential ways of improving profitability and disseminated back to relevant departments. 1.2 Impact of CRM on Information use in the Retail Sector The following section analyses CRM technologys impact on information use in the retail sector. Information here is broken down into three main elements: data; being raw statistics, symbols, numbers, information; processed data considered and knowledge; the application of data and information (Beynon-Davies, 2009). The relationship between one another is also presented throughout. 1.2.1 Impact of CRM on data use A. Provided more efficient and effective use of data, through warehousing, mining and cross-functional integration. CRMs capability for integrating multiple databases across different areas of the retail organisation has impacted data use in the sense that it has enabled users to have access to real time, relevant and accurate customer data. Fallon (2008) and Kaplan (2009) indicate that CRM allows retail companies to absorb raw customer data from multiple sources and integrate it into a centralised CRM system. There it is warehoused and later mined so important trends and information can be elicited and utilised (as applied knowledge) to improve customer relationships (Park and Kim, 2003; Chowdhury, 2009). Where CRMs impact on data use lies is that through data warehousing, users with the aid of CRM mining tools, can analyse masses of real time transactional data such as sales amount, transaction time, place and buyer and non-transactional data, such as customer inquiries/feedback and separate this out into key information on product lines, pricing and customer profile and trends, down to each spe cific retail department and individual store (Miller, 1999). They can then filter back important information and knowledge to management and staff so that the right people at different organisational levels have the necessary know-how to provide enhanced levels of customer service, solve problems and increase profitability (Park and Kim, 2003). B. Negatively impact as a form of customers surveillance Amid growing concerns over data sensitivity and the increasing cross-referencing sale of data CRM has negatively impacted data use (Bodenberg, 2001: Mutch 2008). Literature indicates that CRM technology, with its capability to collect vast amounts of customer data for own strategic purposes, has led to a mass surveillance and monitoring of customer behaviour (Park and Kim, 2003). Consequently, data access and exchange has become more restricted due to stringent data protection legislation and company guidelines over the storage, access and lawful use of personnel customer information (Mutch, 2008). 1.2.2 Impact of CRM on information use A. Information now used as a source of competitive advantageÃ¢â¬ ¦using real time data and information enable a real time response A CRM system allows retail organisations to pull all the transactional and non transactional data together and through the use of CRM tools, extracts key information critical to help coordinate sales, marketing, and customer service departments to better and faster serve customers needs (Smith 2006). In the retail industry CRM has particularly impacted on the way information is used to formulate customer profiles. Organisations can now quickly identify who there customers are, what they buy, how often, the quantities in which they buy etc and use this information to modify pricing, product or service offerings and other elements such as customer service to create an in-depth understanding of customer needs and provide fair value to all customers (Park and Kim, 2003). Put simply, CRM has impacted information use in that users can quickly provide comprehensive summary reports on critical business information to make informed decisions and responses to reduce costs and increase profitab ility at a much faster rate (McLuhan, 2001). 1.1.3 Impact of CRM on how knowledge is used A. CRM impacts on organisations potential for improving knowledge retention, management and sharingÃ¢â¬ ¦.knowledge as a resource Literature advocates that CRM has enhanced organisations ability to share and utilise knowledge (Krebs, 1998; Fan and Ku, 2010). Reychav (2009:235) concurs CRM has improved Ã¢â¬Ëemployees ability to share knowledge both tacit and explicit and thus develop a customer orientation right throughout the business. This is supported by Krebs (1998) although he argues that codifying and storing tacit knowledge to be a much more intricate process. Irrespective, a wealth of evidence indicates CRM has changed the way knowledge is used in terms of how it is shared (Krebs, 1998). For example, in the retail sector, knowledge on particular buying habits of customer groups can be stored on a CRM system at head office where it is accessed by relevant departments (marketing, accounts, sales) who design appropriate promotional deals or joint offers on product lines to increase sales and profitability. This Ã¢â¬Ëknowledge can than be disseminated to appropriate retail outlets/stores to be implemente d. SECTION 2: STRATEGY The following section examines CRMs impact on strategy within the retail sector and begins with a short outline of the key issues of CRM that prevent CRM from fulfilling its potential capabilities in practice. These are conceptualised in the following sections using Scott-Mortons (1991) MIT90s framework (see below), which stresses strategic alignment and integration of CRM technology within all areas of the business is essential to capitalise on CRM potential. 2.1 Context The key issues of implementing CRM technology and its impact on business strategy are: 1. Strategic alignment between CRM technology and business retail strategy 2. Ensuring the organisations structure works synonymously with CRM technology 3. The provision of individual training, recruitment and within this revised job descriptions to ensure the development of necessary competencies to maximise CRM potential 4. How organisational culture positively or negatively affect an organisations and its employees ability to use information elicited from CRM technology These are now explored in more depth in the following sections using the MIT90s framework model illustrated below. 2.1 Strategy History is littered with past CRM failures, Carsdirect.com (Anon, 2000) and Lexmark (Songini, 2002) being perfect examples. McLuhan (2001) and Ramsey (2003) indicate most CRM failures are due to focusing overly on technical-requirements (technological determinism) rather than on the business strategy and the organisations needs. A lack of cross functional coordination, failure to support monitor and evaluate CRM performance and a failure to approach CRM implementation from a holistic approach are some of the other cited reasons as to why CRM projects fail (McLuhan, 2001; Bull, 2003). Other academics argue an unreceptive organisational culture to technological change coupled with an unwillingness to share information and knowledge as inhibitors to unlocking the potential benefits that CRM offers (Kotorov, 2003; Pavlovets, 2005). Essentially the problems cited by literature come under the central issue of strategic alignment, a notion stressed in Henderson and Venkatramans (1993) Strategic Alignment Model and Turbans, et al. (1999) cultural model, though arguably conceptualised to greater effect in the MIT90s framework (Scott-Morton, 1991) which is predominantly the main framework used in this report. The model advocates that for IT change to be successful, technology must be aligned to the company as a whole, so that organisational strategy, infrastructure, existing technology, individual roles, training programs, management and the organisations culture work synonymously with each other (Scott-Morton, 1991). Macredie et al. (1998), supports this perspective, concurring that CRM success is dependent on alignment between organisational strategy, structure and culture. Misalignment between these areas prevents CRM from fully delivering its potential capabilities. For example, if a retail organisations structur e restricts CRM access to marketing and senior management only than it is unlikely that crucial information will be fed down to middle management and employees at operational level (those who interact with customers on a day to day basis) who require it most. Conversely, if the CRM system is not complemented with a recruitment and training policy that is designed to source and develop core competencies required to use CRM technology efectively, than it will most likely fail. Thus, a strategically aligned approach to information strategy (see appendix figure 1), ensuring information systems strategy, information management strategy, information technology strategy and information resource strategy are connected to each other and the overall organizations strategy is a critical success factor for integrating CRM effectively throughout the organisation (Earl, 2000; Van Bentum, 2005). The following sections now turn towards ensuring alignment within other areas of the organisation. 2.2 Structure Numerous writers cite the sheer importance of aligning organisational structure with strategy, technology, the environment and its organisational culture (Mintzberg, 1989; Miller, 1989). In other words, to maximise your IT capabilities, an organisations structure must fit with its environment (Burns and Stalker, 1991; Senge, 1994). Over the years, this has led many retail organisations to shift away from traditional large-scale bureaucratic and hierarchical organisational forms to less traditional divsionalised structures facilitated by business process reengineering. However, evidence suggests such structures not only lose the benefits associated with large-scale bureaucratic organisations such as functional specialism and data interpretation from middle level managers, but also often fail to build strong links between divisions of the business, leading to a loss of shared core competencies and knowledge (Mabey, Saloman and Storey, 2001; Mutch, 2008). Literature is therefore indicat ive neither structure is particularly appropriate when integrating CRM technology. More recently, de-structured organisational forms, with an emphasis on high performance, knowledge creation and the empowerment of teams reflect a more suitable organisational structure in aiding retail organisations to elicit the potential their CRM application offers (Mabey, Saloman and Storey, 2001). Here, structure is built with speed, integration, innovation and flexibility in mind and an adhoc, boundaryless approach more receptive to technology change is instilled throughout the organisation. This encourages a free flowing information exchange throughout strategic, tactical and operational levels, structuring the organisation in a way where senior and middle management staff at retail organisations disseminate key important information and knowledge to employees at operational level. Where CRM role comes into play, is that it can be used to support these networked/lattice forms of organisations (Zuboff, 1988). It therefore appears that organisational agility, termed by Gunneson (1997:3) as Ã¢â¬Ëa flat, fast, flexible organisation, with continuous interaction, support, and communications among various disciplines, with highly decentralized management that recognises what its knowledge base is and how it can manage that base most effectively, is an essential component of structure. To achieve this, retail organisations must adopt a lattice/network like structure that has a mix of stability and flexibility to support the organisations capabilities and the empowerment of team working through cross functional teams with a focus on developing the collective intelligence of teams to meet the complexity of the dynamic environment (see Lorrimar, 1999). Such a structure is typically flat with large spans of control, features lateral communication and helps develop and maintain a project teamwork ethos and customer focus to ensure decision-making is guided by customer satisfaction (Friesen, 2005:33 ). This increases employee involvement, enhances communication, speeds up decision-making and breaks down boundaries thus enhancing flexibility and capacity to adapt (Clayton, 2006). 2.3 Roles Literature advocates that it is organisational peoples use of CRM, not the technology itself, which is where organisations truly capitalise on opening up CRMs full capabilities (McNally, 2007:169). Accordingly, recruitment, job descriptions and individual training should be amended in order to ensure the retail organisations have the right processes and programs in place to ascertain the competencies needed to utilise CRM technology. Job specifications for staff or Ã¢â¬Ëlibrarians accessing CRM should be amended to encourage a proactive approach towards their duties (Owens, Wilson and Abell, 1996). In addition, selection criteria should be adjusted to identify candidates who possess CRM capabilities through IT/CRM related qualification/certificates or direct experience gained through previous employment. Various levels of CRM training programs tailored to each department, and manager should be introduced and should centre on themes which retail procedure and policies regarding data analysis (McKean, 1999), communication competence, such as the use of emails (Ciaborra and Patriotta, 1996) and the ethical use of information to protect the identification of individual customers (Mason, Mason and Culnan, 1995), as well as CRM operational and functional use and how it works across the organisation (Mutch, 2008). The above changes should help retail organisations foster the necessary competencies to ensure CRMs correct use throughout the organisation (Alter, 2009). It is argued that these changes (jobs, processes and a lattice/network like structure), supporting richer communication and information sharing, allow workers to become informated by CRM and view the organisation in its totality, making information and processes once hidden, transparent (Zuboff, 1988). 2.4 Culture Different aspects of organisational culture impact CRM use both positively and negatively in numerous ways. Van Bentum, (2005) analysis of organisational culture distinguishes between several variants of culture. Of these more Ã¢â¬Ëmercenary (characterised by heavy inward competition and intense internal and external rivalry) types of culture, often lend themselves to a communication framework that does not match with the knowledge management, knowledge retention and sharing capabilities that CRM offers. This impacts CRM use negatively, creating reluctance on behalf of the individual to use a system that transfers their core knowledge to an internal Ã¢â¬Ërival. It is this mismatch between culture and technology that is why many CRM projects fail. Such organisational cultures restrict CRMs knowledge sharing capability and discourage its use by workers (Van Bentum, 2005). Sub-cultures operating within departments or functions of the organisation are also seen to negatively hinder C RM use, often displaying resistance and an unwillingness to change and adapt to CRMs integration (Leverick, et al. 1998). In illustrating a more positive impact culture can have on CRM use, Van Bentum, (2005) advocates a Ã¢â¬Ëcommunal culture based on openness, innovation and continuous learning. Here culture positively impacts CRM in the sense that it is embraced by organisational people with a clear customer orientation, who in turn seek to utilise its capabilities to the fullest in their day-to-day activities. It is this type of culture that retail sector organisations currently operating a Ã¢â¬Ëmercenary type culture, should move towards. Another cultural aspect impacting CRM use is that organisational peoples belief system regarding CRM ease-of-use and usefulness can have a significant impact on its performance highlighted (Avlontis and Panagopoulous, 2005). If perceived useful and easy-to-use, CRM leads to performance improvements. Conversely, if perceived as not useful and difficult to use, CRM will have little impact on performance and on fulfilling its strategic objectives (Avlontis and Panagopoulous, 2005). The above cultural impacts on CRM use are indicative of a clear correlation between the type of organisational culture and IT performance (Davis, 1989; Avlontis and Panagopoulous, 2005). Literature indicates that retail organisations (particularly management spearheading/championing CRM) must nurture a communal CRM culture through an environment of teamwork, innovation, trust and a receptiveness towards CRM technology in order to ensure its embracement throughout the organisation (Avlontis and Panagopoulous, 2005:Van Bentum, 2005). an appropriate cultural foundation, is prerequisite to CRM success. SECTION 3: CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS This report has sought to examine CRMs impact on information use and strategy in the retail sector, revealing some of the reasons was as to why CRM projects fail and recommendations to capitalise on CRM potential. The reports main findings and recommendations are summarised below: 3.1 KEY FINDINGS 1. CRM technology has significantly impacted the relationship between data, information and knowledge and their use in the retail industry. Data and information are now used as a source of competitive advantage. Knowledge is now seen as a resource through retention and sharing. 2. Strategic alignment is a critical for CRM success. 3. There are numerous barriers to successful CRM often attributable to a strategic misalignment (summarised in appendix figure 2). 3.2 RECCOMENDATIONS 1. A holistic perspective towards CRM implementation and strategic alignment between CRM and the organisations strategy, structure, individuals and culture is a critical for CRM success (Scott-Morton, 1991; Macredie, et al. 1998; Bull, 2003). 2. A CRM strategy, outlining its strategic objectives and a clear plan for integrating it into the organisations business processes and systems are perquisites for any successful CRM implementation project. 3. Understanding data needs and how the data will be used to extract information and elicit knowledge to increase profitability is critical. 4. Organisational agility to adapt to contextual factors such as new CRM technology is essential. De-structural changes in specific departments such as implementing flatter structures, introducing cross-functional teams and lateral communication channels is more suited to unlocking CRM potential (Lorrimar, 1999; Mabey, Saloman and Storey, 2001). 5. Organisational peoples role in how CRM is used is a major determinant of its success (McNally, 2007). Tailored recruitment and training programs to foster the right CRM competencies supported with an effective incentive system are critical (Avlontis and Panagopoulous, 2005). A communal organisational culture emphasising a strong customer orientation, teamwork, empowerment, communication, innovation, accurate expectations regarding system usage and a receptiveness towards new technology is crucial to elicit employee commitment to CRM (Van Bentum, 2005). APPENDIX * Open focussing on technical-requirements reather than on the business strategy and organisations needs (McLuhan, 2001; Ramsey, 2003) * Lack of cross functional coordination (McLuhan, 2001) * Failure to support monitor and evaluate CRM performance (McLuhan, 2001; Bull, 2003) * Failure to approach CRM implementation from a holistic approach (McLuhan, 2001; Bull, 2003) * An unreceptive organisational culture to technological change (Kotorov, 2003) and sub cultures displaying resistance and an unwillingness to change and adapt to how CRM fits into their working duties acts as a barrier to unlocking CRM potential (Leverick, et al. 1998) * An unwillingness to share information and knowledge as inhibiting CRM potential (Kotorov, 2003; Pavlovets, 2005)
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Management Principles in the Construction Industry Task 1 Management Techniques (1.1, 1.2, 1.3) Define and attribute three established definitions of management Fredrick Taylor observed that workers were often working beneath their potential and he designed a four stage method to overcome this problem; Break the job into its smallest elements Select the most qualified employees to do the job and train them to do it. Monitor the employees to ensure that they follow the prescribed methods. Continue in this way, but only use the employees that perform the work well. In 1911, Taylor published principles of scientific management in which he described methods of work designed to increase productivity. Many studies were performed at the Bethlehem steel company in Pittsburgh where he examined the time and motion details of work operations. He developed better methods for performing specific tasks and trained the workers to perform them. In one experiment he increased the output of a worker loading pig iron onto a rail car. He broke the task down into its smallest operations, timing each one with a stopwatch. The task was then redesigned, reducing the number of movements as well as the effort required and the potential sources of error. Work breaks were introduced at specific intervals for a specified duration and a differential pay scale was also used to improve the production rate. The workers output rate increased from 12 to 47 tons per day! Taylor was known as the father of scientific management. Frank (1868 to 1924) and Lillian (1878-1972) Gilbreth The Gilbreths, a husband and wife team, developed ways to increase workers output. They believed that it was possible to design work methods whose durations could be estimated in advance, rather than using time studies based on observation. One of his studies related to bricklaying. He filmed all of the required movements to perform the task. This enabled him to determine the tasks that made up each stage of the process. As a result, he designed and patented special scaffolding to reduce the amount of bending and reaching. This changed an 18 stage process into a five stage process, increasing productivity by around 200%. The Gilbreths defined motion study as breaking work down into its fundamental elements, studying the elements both separately and both in relation to each other so as to minimise waste. They defined time study as a scientific analysis of methods and equipment used for a task, development of the best way of doing it and determination of the time required to perform it. Frank Gilbreth is known as the father of time and motion studies. Administrative Management Administrative management considers the running of the total organisation. Some of the major contributors are: Henri Fayol (1841 to 1925) was a French engineer. Fayol was the first to distinguish the four management functions: Planning Organising Leading Controlling Fayol was known as the father of modern management His principles of management included, division of work, authority and responsibility, discipline and order, unity of command and direction, subordination of individual interests to general goals, job security and remuneration of personnel. Max Weber (1864 to 1920) was a German sociologist and economist Weber outlined the concept of bureaucracy. He saw bureaucracy as the most logical and appropriate structure for large organisations. Bureaucracies are based on authority which comes from law, procedures, rules, etc. He believed that efficiency in bureaucracies comes from: Hierarchical structure Clearly defined and specialised job functions Use of strict and systematic rules and procedures Appointment of employees to job based and technical expertise Promotions of employees based on competence Clearly defined career paths His work is the foundation of contemporary organisation theory. Mary parker Follett (1868 to 1933) was an American lecturer and management consultant Follets concepts included: The universal goal The universal goal of organisations is an integration of individual effort into that of the whole company. The universal principle The universal principle involves reciprocal response emphasising feedback to the sender, ( the concept of two way communication). The law situation The law of the situation emphasises that there is not a single best way of doing anything, but that it all depends on the situation. Behavioural orhuman relationsManagement, which appeared in the 1920s, dealt with the human aspects of the organisations. Initially, it was a reaction to the shortcomings of the classical theories of management. Behavioural research began with the Hawthorne studies which were conducted between 1924 and 1933 at the Hawthorne plant of the western electric company in Cicero, Illinois by Elton Mayo and his colleagues. Elton Mayo (1880 to 1949) Mayo believed that work satisfaction depends more on working conditions and attitudes than on the level of remuneration. He rejected Taylorism and that work should be considered as a group activity. He proposed that workers needed recognition of their efforts and tnat a sense of belonging was more important than the physical working conditions. Mayo identified the Hawthorne effect. This is the bias that occurs when people know that they are being observed. The Hawthorne studies The Hawthorne studies included the Illumination experiments. The aim of these studies was to investigate the effect of operating conditions on productivity. Illumination experiments were carried out to establish whether better lighting conditions would lead to increased productivity. It was found that employees productivity increased whether the light were turned up or down. However, the increased productivity was found to be a result of the attention received by the group, not the working conditions. Another study found that employees do not work as fast as they can when they are being paid piece rate wages. Instead, they will perform informally to a level set by the group. The conclusion was that there was no direct cause and effect between operating conditions and productivity. Worker attitude and peer pressure was found to be more important. 1.2Ã Explain the principles and processes of management: forecasting The Principles and forecasting of Management Principles of Management The principles are; To command Maintain the activity among the personnel. Forecasting To be able to predict the outcomes of business behaviour or industry sector through the use of experience, qualification or with the use of statistics or other previous records. (The go to place for management) Forecasting is an effective practice use as a starting point for management planning and decision making. General types of forecasting include trend examination, regression analysis, Delphi technique, time series analysis, correlation, exponential smoothing, and input-output analysis. Daily business planning Planning is an incredibly effective way for managers to stay focused on achieving their own goals and the goals of the organization for which they represent. Organising Build up the structure, both material and human, of the undertaking. Motivating To encourage and inspire other to carry out tasks or jobs to be completed and maintain momentum or the working pace of the operatives. Controlling Seeing that everything occurs in conformity with established rule and expressed command. Coordinating Binding together, unifying and harmonizing all activity and effort. Communicating Henri Fayol published 14 principles of management these principles are: (Fayol) Division of Work. Specialization allows the individual to build up experience, and to continuously improve his skills. Thereby he can be more productive. Authority. The right to issue commands, along with which must go the balanced responsibility for its function. Discipline. Employees must obey, but this is two-sided: employees will only obey orders if management play their part by providing good leadership. Unity of Command. Each worker should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of command. Unity of Direction. People engaged in the same kind of activities must have the same objectives in a single plan. This is essential to ensure unity and coordination in the enterprise. Unity of command does not exist without unity of direction but does not necessarily flow from it. Subordination of individual interest (to the general interest). Management must see that the goals of the firms are always paramount. Remuneration. Payment is an important motivator although by analyzing a number of possibilities, Fayol points out that there is no such thing as a perfect system. Centralization (or Decentralization). This is a matter of degree depending on the condition of the business and the quality of its personnel. Scalar chain (Line of Authority). A hierarchy is necessary for unity of direction. But lateral communication is also fundamental, as long as superiors know that such communication is taking place. Scalar chain refers to the number of levels in the hierarchy from the ultimate authority to the lowest level in the organization. It should not be over-stretched and consist of too-many levels. Order. Both material order and social order are necessary. The former minimizes lost time and useless handling of materials. The latter is achieved through organization and selection. Equity. In running a business a combination of kindliness and justice is needed. Treating employees well is important to achieve equity. Stability of Tenure of Personnel. Employees work better if job security and career progress are assured to them. An insecure tenure and a high rate of employee turnover will affect the organization adversely. Initiative. Allowing all personnel to show their initiative in some way is a source of strength for the organization. Even though it may well involve a sacrifice of personal vanity on the part of many managers. Esprit de Corps. Management must foster the morale of its employees. He further suggests that: real talent is needed to coordinate effort, encourage keenness, use each persons abilities, and reward each ones merit without arousing possible jealousies and disturbing harmonious relations. 1.3Ã Identify the motivational needs of individuals and groups, leadership styles and concepts of team working. Motivational Needs Organization of goals, function within addition to ideals among employees, teams and company is the generally essential part of motivation. The better the arrangement and personal union with organizational aim, the healthier the podium for incentive. Anywhere persons find it hard to support and unite with the organizational aims, and then mainly motivational ideas and actions will have a reduced level of success. Motivation is a difficult subject. It differentiates for each person. Motivational receptivity and potential in everyone differs from day to day, from situation to situation. Get the alignment and values right, and motivational methods work out better. Motivational methods of every sort will not work if some people or organisations are not aligned. People are more interested or gravitate towards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Times have changed. People want more. Motivational and inspirational quotes, poems, posters, motivational speakers and stories, team building games and activities, all develop employee motivation for sales and business staff in all kinds of organizations. Motivational and inspirational experiences improve employees attitudes, confidence and performance. Leadership styles Charismatic Leadership Charismatic Leaders use a wide range of methods to manage their image and, if they are not naturally charismatic, may practice assiduously at developing their skills. They may engender trust through visible self-sacrifice and taking personal risks in the name of their beliefs. They will show great confidence in their followers. They are very persuasive and make very effective use of body languageas well as verbal language. Participative Leadership A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is within the managers whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team. The question of how much influence others are given thus may vary on the managers preferences and beliefs, and a whole spectrum of participation is possible, as in the table below. Situational leadership The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors. When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style, such as using transactionalor transformationalmethods. In practice, as they say, things are not that simple. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors within the particular situation. The relationship between followers and the leader may be another factor that affects leader behaviour as much as it does follower behaviour. Transactional Leadership The transactional leader works through creating clear structures whereby it is clear what is required of their subordinates, and the rewards that they get for following orders. Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well-understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place. The early stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company (and by implication the subordinates manager) gets authority over the subordinate. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whether or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding). Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers. This vision may be developed by the leader, by the senior team or may emerge from a broad series of discussions. The important factor is the leader buys into it, hook, line and sinker. The next step, which in fact never stops, is to constantly sell the vision. This takes energy and commitment, as few people will immediately buy into a radical vision, and some will join the show much more slowly than others. The Transformational Leader thus takes every opportunity and will use whatever works to convince others to climb on board the bandwagon. In order to create followers, the Transformational Leader has to be very careful in creating trust, and their personal integrity is a critical part of the package that they are selling. In effect, they are selling themselves as well as the vision. The quiet Leader The approach of quiet leaders is the antithesis of the classic charismatic(and often transformational) leaders in that they base their success not on ego and force of character but on their thoughts and actions. Although they are strongly task-focused, they are neither bullies nor unnecessarily unkind and may persuade people through rational argument and a form of benevolent Transactional Leadership. Servant Leadership It is easy to dismiss servant leadership as soft and easy, though this is not necessarily so, as individual followers may be expected to make sacrifices for the good of the whole, in the way of the servant leader. The focus on the less privileged in society shows the servant leader as serving not just their followers but also the whole of society. Servant leadership is a natural model for working in the public sector. It requires more careful interpretation in the private sector lest the needs of the shareholders and customers and the rigors of market competition are lost. Task 2 Leading by Example (2.1, 2.5, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5) 2.1Ã Describe in outline the main markets, activities and services provided by the construction and built environment sector. The Main Markets New build Housing The housing market is the supply and demandfor homes, normally in a particular country or county, a primary element of the housing market is the average house prices and activity in house prices. The availability of housing and the amount of housing stock fluctuates house prices sectors include the rented sector. Buy to let investment and the requirement from tenants, government intervention controls and Influences the Housing market Interest rates also influence the cost of erratic mortgages market conditions and mortgage activity, plays an important part in whether people are eligible for mortgages financial progress, incomes and unemployment rates population and geographic trends also have influences in this market place The UK Housing Market is habitually unpredictable because of a variety of factors. The UK Housing market often has influence over wider economy. E.g. when house prices are decreasing, consumer spending tends to fall because the housing market always dictates for the economy and individual homeowners, it is essential to try and predict or foresee the future movements in the housing market. Industrial Commercial Markets This industry consists of units generally occupied in the construction and development of commercial and industrial non-residential buildings. This category also consists of elements occupied in carrying out additions, alterations or renovations or general repairs or remodelling to commercial and industrial buildings or in organising or managing the construction. Establishments mainly engaged in the construction of institutional non-residential buildings such as schools hospitals and other government buildings. Infrastructure Markets The general dependable systemsof a community or countries population, including utilities, water, sewage, roads, etc. These systems are considered paramount for enabling growthin an economy. Building and developing an infrastructure often requires huge investment, but the economies of scaletend to be significant. 2.5Ã Define and explain the application of a mission statement, strategy, corporate planning, policy and objectives to the activities of a practice or firm A mission statement is a formal short statement of the purpose of a company or organisation. The mission statement should guide the actions of the organisation, spell out its overall goal, provide a sense of direction, and guide decision making. It provides the framework or context within which the companys strategies are formulated. Historically it is associated with Christian religious groups; indeed, for many years a missionary was assumed to be a person on a specifically religious mission. The word mission dates from 1598, originally of Jesuits sending members abroad. Corporate planning Corporate planning is the continuas process of making present risk-taking decisions systematically and with the greatest knowledge of their futurity; organising systematically the efforts needed to carry out these decisions, and measuring the results of these decisions against the expectations through organised, systematic feedback. Planning at the highest level in an organisation, involving an analysis of the current situation, the setting of objectives, the formulation of strategies and tactics, implementation and evaluation. 4.3Ã Describe what is meant by multi discipline non adversarial working in project teams (Lathem Report). Multi discipline means a person firm of group offering multiple disciplines in which they specialize. If a task requires more than one type of specialist/function, it requires multi-disciplined group or person. Non- adversarialmeans there is a spirit of co operation, a passive stance, the parties are willing to reach a mutually satisfying resolution to a problem. There is persuasion rather than coercion. The Lathem report The Lathem report was an influential report written by sir Michael Lathem. Commissioned by the United Kingdom Government and industry to review procurement and contractual arrangements in the construction industry. It tackled the most controversial issues facing the industry during a period of lapse in growth as a whole. The Lathem report of July 1994 was sponsored by UK Government and industry following several poorly performing projects. The inefficiencies identified pointed to the need for partnering and collaboration in the construction sector. The Lathem report 1994 `constructing the team` a joint industry government report was based on a simple concept that through teamwork the construction industry could delight its consumers. The report acted as a wake up with all the urgency of an emergency siren. This was a report that had to be listened to, the industry couldnt but help but hear the cries for reform. The industry was ineffective, adversarial, fragmented, and incapable of delivering for its customers` and lacking respect for its employees` more than just ringing alarm bells the Lathem report set the agenda for reform and gave the industry targets. From this a raft of initiatives flowed. The report led to the establishment of the construction industry board to oversee reform and subsequent initiatives were the Egan report 1998 `Rethinking construction` the construction best practice programme, The movement for innovation` and construction excellence` all designed to drive the industry forward. 4.4Ã Evaluate the concept of sharing best practice and benchmarking the performance of a practice/firms activities Best practice is a method or technique, method, process, activity, incentive, or reward that is believed to be more effective at delivering a particular outcome than any other technique, method, process, etc. When applied to a particular condition or circumstance. The idea is that with proper processes, check, and testing, a desired outcome can be delivered with fewer problems or unforeseen circumstances, best practice can also be defined as the most efficient and effective way of accomplishing a task , based upon repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for large numbers of people. A given best practice is only applicable to a particular condition or circumstance and may have to be modified or adapted for similar circumstance. In addition, a best practice can evolve to become better as improvements are discovered. Despite the need to improve on processes as the environment changes , best practice is considered by some as business buzzword used to describe the process of developing and following a standard way of doing things that multiple organisations can use for managements, policy, and software systems. As a team becomes more popular, some organisations have begun using the term best practices to refer to what are in fact merely `rules` causing a linguistic drift in which a new term such as good ideas is needed to refer to what previously would have been called `best practice`. 4.5Ã Explain how sustainable Construction and environmental Management/Conservation Issues impact on the organisation and operation of a project/organisation. Sustainable construction Environmental management The strategy for sustainable construction is a joint industry and government initiative intended to promote leadership and behavioural change, as well as delivering benefits to both the construction industry and the wider economy. The output of the construction industry has a major impact on our ability to maintain a sustainable economy overall and has a major impact on our environment, moreover, it is clear that we cannot meet our declared environmental targets without dramatically reducing the environmental impact of buildings and infrastructure construction, we have to change the way we design and build. The business case for sustainable construction agenda is based upon increasing profitability by using resources more efficiently, firms who offer sustainable products and ways of working are more likely to secure building contracts, by enhancing their company image and profile in the market place by addressing issues related to corporate and social responsibility, and sustainable construction. Construction companies competing in this market place must address issues such as: Design quality Energy Health and safety Materials Procurement Skills Social responsibility Surface water management Waste Water use Facilities management Task 3 Organisation (2.2, 2.3, 2.4) 2.2Ã Identify the roles of the different professions/disciplines within the design construction and installation team and the main cycle of work activity. Design Client, lead consultant, CDM coordinator, Cost consultant, Lead designer, Architect structural engineer, services engineer, contractor Construction Principle contractor, managing director, contracts manager, project manager , site manager, assistant site manager, foreman. Labourer. Installation teams Surveyor, setting out engineer, groundworks subcontractor, brickwork subcontractor, steel frame subcontractor, concrete slab subcontractor, floor screed subcontractor, carpentry subcontractor, mechanical and electrical subcontractor, cladding contractor roofing contractor, telecoms contractor, scaffolding contractor, dry lining subcontractor, British gas southern electric. 2.3Ã Produce an organisation structure that includes examples and explanations of direct line, lateral functional and staff relationships and also explain with examples, span of control chain of command centralised versus decentralised and job design. Directors Managers Managers Section heads Section heads Section heads Section heads Section heads Section heads Managers Explanations of direct line. The director Directors have many business responsibilities for ensuring the success of their company, in areas such as health and safety, employment law and tax. The contracts Manager He / she will be responsible for the successful procurement, progress and completion of several contracts at any time. Planning and Control Planning Designing a methodical process for accomplishing the goals of the organisation / preparing the organisation for the future Organising Arranging the resources to carry out the plan / the process of creating the company structure, establishing relationships and allocating resources to achieve the organisational goals. Directing Guiding, leading and supervising employees to achieve the organisational goals Controlling Verifying that actual performance matches the plan/ if it does not match the actual plan then corrective action needs to be taken. Lateral functions There are also lateral functions in the job functions and personal roles in the areas of design, planning and construction there are senior managers and operative in all areas who need to liaise and work together to achieve the goals of the organisation. 2.4Ã Identify project based organisation structures. Health Safety Consultant CDM Coordinator Subcontractors Employees Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Subcontractors Assistant Manager Site Manager Project Manager Section heads CDM Coordinator The CDM co-ordinator is there to advise and assist with CDM dutiesÃ on notifiable jobs. They will: advise on selecting competent designers and contractors; help identify what information will be needed by designers and contractors; co-ordinate the arrangements for health and safety during the planningÃ phase; ensure that HSE is notified of the project; tell if the initial construction phase plan is suitable; and prepare a health and safety file (this contains useful informationÃ needed to enable future cleaning, maintenance and alterations to be carried outÃ Safely). The appointment of the CDM co-ordinator is better done soon as possible, but no later than the initial design/preparation stage. Health and Safety consultant Normally familiar with working within a construction site environment, roaming various sites to ensure that health and safety standards are being met according to statuary regulations and company and client standards. The Project Manager A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized. The Site Manager He /She will be responsible for the day to day running of the site the job normally involves Producing the site layout plan Setting up the dimensional control of the works Interpreting the drawings and specifications Liaising with the architects and engineers Checking the quality of the work Ensuring a safe site environment Planning 3.1Ã Describe techniques used to organise the layout, resourcing and accommodation of the project The techniques used to organise the layout of the project is called a site layout plan. All construction projects of any notable size require the provision of substantial amounts of temporary facilities (TF). One of the initial tasks to be undertaken on any construction site is the construction of the temporary accommodation and associated site compound. The compound is required for safety and security whilst various types of temporary facilities are required the most common being, Office Accommodation Ã Ã Ã (Reception, General Office, Engineers Office, Project Managers Office etc.) Welfare Facilities Accommodation Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (Canteen, Toilets, Showers, Drying Rooms etc.) Storage Accommodation Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (Valuable and Hazardous Materials storage facilities) 3.2Ã Describe with examples, methods of work planning, monitoring and progress control u
Monday, August 19, 2019
The concentration camps that were run by the Nazis during World War II can easily be labeled as one of the most grotesque examples of cruelty in the entire world. The people that were sent to these concentration camps were treated as less than human by the power hungry leaders of the camp. As we have all learned in history classes throughout our lives, the conditions of these camps were blatantly abhorrent, and it is a surprise that people made it out of these camps alive. In his book, ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Search for Meaning, Viktor E. Frankl uses his experiences in a concentration camp as an example to his readers that life holds a potential meaning no matter what condition a person is in. In the two parts of his book he analyzes his experiences and the experiences of his comrades in the concentration camps, and then he discusses his personal psychological theory of logotherepy. Together these two sections make up a novel that gives insight to the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"man can preserve a vestige of spiritual freedom, of independence of mind, even in such terrible conditions of psychic and physical stressÃ¢â¬ (65). In the first section of his book, he describes his experiences in the concentration camps by breaking up the incident into three separate stages that deal with the inmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ mental reactions to the concentration camps. The first stage inevitably describes the mental reactions that occur immediately after being admitted to the camp. When a first person entered they were either immediately killed by a gas chamber or incinerator, or they were stripped of their every possession, besides their body, and forced into appalling living conditions. According to Frankl, all of the people in the camp felt two initial emotions while entering the camps- humor a... ...t impetus. He proves this idea by saying "a man who becomes conscious of the responsibility he bears [Ã¢â¬ ¦] will never be able to throw away his lifeÃ¢â¬ (127). This statement emphasizes the idea that as long as a person has a will to meaning in their life, something to live for, that they will never be so hopeless that they will give up on life. Finally, FranklÃ¢â¬â¢s last main point of logotherapy is that every person has the freedom to find a meaning for their life and then change their life according to this will to meaning. Frankl makes it known that a person can find their meaning by performing an endeavor, being subjected to a value, or by suffering. Overall, FranklÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of logotherapy can be used to help a person overcome the anxiety associated with finding a meaning to their life. Works Cited Frankl, Viktor. ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Search for Meaning. Boston: Beacon Press, 2006.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Macrobiotics: A way of Life WHAT IS MACROBIOTICS? Macrobiotics is not just a diet, but a holistic approach to living that takes into account all aspects of human life, including the inter-relationship between body, mind and spirit. Macrobiotics stresses the importance of a balanced diet because one's diet creates the foundation for a happy, healthy and harmonious life. Macrobiotic philosophy teaches practitioners to lead a balanced lifestyle based on the Chinese yin-yang principles. The actual macrobiotic diet closely resembles a vegan-like food pattern with virtually no animal food consumed. Practitioners also avoid "nonorganic" or "processed" foods. The macrobiotic movement has become increasingly popular during the past decade due to various survival stories from chronically ill persons who used the macrobiotic way as an alternative approach to medicine. WHAT IS THE PHILOSOPHY BEHIND MACROBIOTICS ? The "Process of Disease" explained through the seven stages of symptomology is the basis of macrobiotic theory with regard to people's eating habits and its effect on the human body. Macrobiotics applies yin-yang principles to explain the relationship between food and the human organism and a balanced diet. Macrobiotic philosophy defines a healthy person using three natural life processes as criteria: urination, bowel movements and breathing. When the body ingests toxins, as a result of an unbalanced diet, its natural healing process produces abnormalities in one or all of these three life processes. Most people naturally react to the situation by taking medicine to relieve the symptoms. According to practitioners of macrobiotics, the ingestion of pharmaceuticals only inhibits the body's ability to heal i... ...d be sufficient. Works Cited: Cambell, T.C., Parpia, B. & Chen,J. (1982). Diet, lifestyle and the etiology of coronary Artery disease: The Cornell China study. American Journal Cardiolog~v. 10B, 18T-21T. Dwyer, J.T., Dietz, W.H., Andrews, E.M. & Suskind, R.M. (1982) Nutritional status of Vegetarian children: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 35(2), 204-216. Furnham, A. & Forey, J. (1994).The attitudes behaviors and beliefs of patients of conventional vs. complementary (alternative) medicine: Journal of Clinical Psvchologv. 50(3), 458-469. van Stavern, W.A. & Dagnelie, P.C. (1988). Food consumption, growth, and development of Dutch children fed on alternative diets: American Journal of ClinicalNutrition. 48 (3 Suppl), 819-821. Weitzman, S. (1998). Alternative nutritional cancer therapies: International Journal of Cancer. 11(Suppl), 69-72.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
1. Olaudah Equiano represented a confluence of African and European cultures. While he spent only his childhood in Africa, Equiano remained cognizant of his African heritage and tied to his cultural roots. Yet he also embraced British culture and customs with prodigious alacrity. Equiano imbibed British ideas about liberty, commerce, Protestant religion, and social habits and mores. He even married an Englishwoman, Susan Cullen, and lived out his days in London. In short, Equiano lionized British society and sought to emulate his white peers.How does Equiano define his identity? Is he African? Is he British? How do you explain this hybridity? 2. Equiano was baptized into the Christian faith at the age of fourteen in 1759. What role does religion play in his life? Discuss EquianoÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with God and his belief in the fatalism of Providence. 3. Equiano purchased his freedom for forty pounds at the age of twenty-one in 1766. Throughout his narrative, he became an able and astute entrepreneur. What role does the economy play in EquianoÃ¢â¬â¢s life? In what ways does commerce make him a modern man?What is EquianoÃ¢â¬â¢s economic solution to slavery at the end of the book? 4. Equiano was familiar with the entire system of slavery from Africa to the Middle Passage to plantation life in the West Indies and United States. How do his experiences of African slavery and New-World slavery compare? What is his view of slavery? Is it so simple as a one-sided condemnation, or is it more complicated? Does Equiano accept slavery under any circumstances? Are their ways in which it is legitimized? 5. Autobiography is a literary genre that allows the author to recall and record events from his or her past.Intentionally or not, however, sometimes autobiographers reinvent their pasts to their advantage. Memory and interpretation can obscure what actually took place. In what ways does Equiano appeal to the reader? Does he present a judicious and balanced view of his life, or is this book merely an exercise in propaganda? 6. If all of these questions fail to stimulate your interest, creativity, and analytical apparatuses, you may create your own paper topic provided you receive my approval well in advance.